Association of Elevated Serum GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-α Concentration with Tobacco Smoke Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a South Indian Population
Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) and corresponding correlation with lung function parameters among long-term smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (a, b) TNF-α concentrations were increased in TS COPD group compared to TS CONTROL group (p<0.001); inverse correlation of TNF-α concentrations to (c) FEV1/FVC, (d) , and (e) was detected in the study cohort. Data is presented as median (25th-75th percentile); TS COPD: n=30 and TS CONTROL: n=20; p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1/FVC: forced expiratory volume 1 second postbronchodilator challenge/forced vital capacity; : forced expiratory volume 1 second prebronchodilator challenge; : FEV1 postbronchodilator challenge; TS COPD: tobacco smokers with COPD; TS CONTROL: tobacco smokers without.
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