International Journal of Inflammation / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Association of Elevated Serum GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-α Concentration with Tobacco Smoke Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a South Indian Population

Table 1

Demographics of the study cohort constituting tobacco smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TS COPD) and tobacco smokers without COPD (TS CONTROL). Values are presented as #median (25th–75th percentile) and frequency (percentage). §Only 3 subjects in the TS COPD group quitted smoking 3, 8, and 10 years ago; p<0.05 is considered as significant.

TS COPDTS CONTROL p value

Number of subjects3020-

Gender MaleMale-
61 (53.0, 68.0)58 (49.0, 59.25)0.207

CCI [39]3 (2, 4)1 (0.5, 2)<0.0001
(L)1.30 (0.91, 1.77)2.77 (2.1, 3.11)0.0001
(L)1.44 (0.96, 1.84)2.83 (2.16, 3.24 )0.0001
(L)2.15 (1.67, 2.83)3.30 (2.59, 4.14)0.0022
(L)2.24 (1.49, 1.81)3.45 (2.44, 3.92)0.0022
FEV1 % predicted (Pre) #43 (36.0, 59.0)96 (88.25, 107.25)<0.0001
FEV1 % predicted (Post) #48 (40.25, 61.0)102 (94.25, 108.25)<0.0001
FEV1/FVC#0.63 (0.59, 0.68)0.80 (0.78, 0.88)<0.0001
Pack-years#19.1 (13.94, 28.61)20.9 (18.2, 24.6)0.751
Ex-smokers ∧§3 (10%)0 (0%)-
Symptom Years#5 (3, 7)--
SLI#19.5 (17, 22)19 (16, 22)0.67

Indoor Animals17 (56%)14 (70%)0.34

House with mud walls19 (63.3)12 (60%)0.81

Owns Land15 (50%)12 (60%)0.49

Owns Vehicle10 (66.7%)5 (33.3%)0.53

Farmer11 (36.7%)5 (25%)0.48

Manual labour15 (50%)14 (70%)0.48

Literate22 (73.3%)15 (75%)0.51

CCI: Charlson comorbidity index; : forced expiratory volume 1 second prebronchodilator challenge; : FEV1 postbronchodilator challenge; FVC: forced vital capacity; SLI: standard of living index; TS COPD: tobacco smokers with COPD; TS CONTROL: tobacco smokers without COPD.

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