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International Journal of Inflammation
Volume 2018, Article ID 2859135, 9 pages
Review Article

Natural Products with Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Activity

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Dunant, 3-21100 Varese, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Carlo Rossetti; ti.airbusninu@ittessor.olrac

Received 3 November 2017; Revised 9 January 2018; Accepted 30 January 2018; Published 1 March 2018

Academic Editor: Ke-Wu Zeng

Copyright © 2018 Monica Molteni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the innate immunity receptors that play an activating role when interacting with molecules released by bacteria and viruses (PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns) or with molecules released by injured cells and tissues (DAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns). TLR triggering leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, driving the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been described to be involved in the inflammatory processes observed in several pathologies (such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer). Molecules obtained by natural sources have been discovered to exert an anti-inflammatory action by targeting TLR4 activation pathways. This review focuses on TLR4 antagonists obtained from bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants.