International Journal of Inflammation / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Natural Products with Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Activity

Table 1

Ligands and immune cells expressing Toll-Like Receptors. Mo, monocytes; MΦ, macrophages, DC, dendritic cells; MC, mast cells; B, B lymphocytes; T, T lymphocytes; NK, NK cells; HSPs, heat shock proteins; HMGB1, high mobility group box 1; mRNA, messenger RNA; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA.

TLR SubcellularImmune cell PAMPsDAMPs
localizationexpression

TLR1/TLR2Plasma membraneMo, MΦ, DC, BTriacylated lipoproteins
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide

TLR2/TLR6Plasma membraneMo, MΦ, MC, BDiacylated lipopeptides 
Lipoteichoic acid 
Zymosan
HSPs
HMGB1
Versican
Hyaluronan

TLR3EndosomeB, T, NK, DCDouble strand RNAmRNA

TLR4Plasma membrane/endosomeMo, MΦ, DC, MCLipopolysaccharide
F protein of syncytial virus
Mannuronic acid polymers
Teichuronic acid
Flavolipin
Mannan
NS1 protein of dengue virus
HSPs
HMGB1
Hyaluronan
Biglycan
Fibronectin
Heparan sulphate
Tenascin C

TLR5Plasma membraneMo, MΦ, DCFlagellin

TLR7EndosomeMo, MΦ, DC, BssRNAssRNA

TLR8EndosomeMo, MΦ, DC, MCssRNAssRNA

TLR9EndosomeMo, MΦ, DC, B, TCpG DNAChromatin IgG complex

TLR10/TLR2
TLR10
Plasma membrane/
endosome
Mo, DC, BGram-positive molecules 
Influenza virus molecules

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