Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2009, Article ID 158749, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/158749
Research Article

Studies of the Suitability of Fowlpox as a Decontamination and Thermal Stability Simulant for Variola Major

US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA

Received 16 June 2009; Accepted 31 October 2009

Academic Editor: Carla Pruzzo

Copyright © 2009 Amanda E. Chambers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. L. Buller and G. J. Palumbo, “Poxvirus pathogenesis,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 80–122, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. McLysaght, P. F. Baldi, and B. S. Gaut, “Extensive gene gain associated with adaptive evolution of poxviruses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 26, pp. 15655–15660, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. S. J. Flint, L. W. Enquist, V. R. Racaniello, and A. M. Skalka, “Prevention and control of viral diseases,” in Principles of Virology, pp. 702–704, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. K. Slifka, “The future of smallpox vaccination: is MVA the key?” Medical Immunology, vol. 4, pp. 2–10, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  5. M. Eichner, “Analysis of historical data suggests long-lasting protective effects of smallpox vaccination,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 158, no. 8, pp. 717–723, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. M. Rosengard, Y. Liu, Z. Nie, and R. Jimenez, “Variola virus immune evasion design: expression of a highly efficient inhibitor of human complement,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 13, pp. 8808–8813, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. C. L. Afonso, E. R. Tulman, Z. Lu, L. Zsak, G. F. Kutish, and D. L. Rock, “The genome of fowlpox virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 3815–3831, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. N. Hahon and E. Kozikowski, “Thermal inactivation studies with Variola virus,” The Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 81, pp. 609–613, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  9. I. Tanabe and S. Hotta, “Effect of disinfectants on Variola virus in cell culture,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 209–212, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  10. C. Wallis and J. L. Melnick, “Virus aggregation as the cause of the non-neutralizable persistent fraction,” Journal of Virology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 478–488, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. K. Joklik, “The intracellular fate of rabbitpox virus rendered noninfectious by various reagents,” Virology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 620–633, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Kaplan, “Heat inactivation of vaccinia virus,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 18, pp. 58–63, 1958. View at Google Scholar