Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2010, Article ID 765479, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/765479
Research Article

Simultaneous Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Two Pneumococcal Multilocus Sequence Types with a Serotype 3 Phenotype

1Monkland Hospital, Clinical Microbiology Department, Monklands General Hospital, Monkscourt Avenue, Airdrie, Lanarkshire ML5 0JS, UK
2Queens Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
3Scottish Haemophilus, Legionella, Meningococcal and Pneumococcal Reference Laboratory (SHLMPRL), Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow G21 3UW, UK
4Fundación Totaí, Casilla 158, Trinidad, Beni, Bolivia
5Laboratorios Altstadt, Casilla 158, Trinidad, Beni, Bolivia
6Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre University of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK

Received 14 January 2010; Revised 26 September 2010; Accepted 13 October 2010

Academic Editor: Eduardo Dei-Cas

Copyright © 2010 Donald Inverarity et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. C. Enright and B. G. Spratt, “A multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease,” Microbiology, vol. 144, no. 11, pp. 3049–3060, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Obaro and R. Adegbola, “The pneumococcus: carriage, disease and conjugate vaccines,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 98–104, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. D. Brugger, P. Frey, S. Aebi, J. Hinds, and K. Mühlemann, “Multiple colonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 7, Article ID e11638, 8 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  4. B. M. Gray, G. M. Converse III, and H. C. Dillon Jr., “Epidemiologic studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: acquisition, carriage, and infection during the first 24 months of life,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 923–933, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Bogaert, R. De Groot, and P. W. M. Hermans, “Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 144–154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. K. L. O'Brien and H. Nohynek, “Report from a WHO Working Group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. e1–e11, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. L. O'Brien, M. A. Bronsdon, R. Dagan et al., “Evaluation of a medium (STGG) for transport and optimal recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions collected during field studies,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1021–1024, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. G. M. Converse III and H. C. Dillon Jr., “Epidemiological studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: methods of isolating pneumococci,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 293–296, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Inverarity, M. Diggle, G. Edwards, and T. Mitchell, “An evaluation of media suitable for the transportation by air of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates,” Journal of Infection, vol. 55, pp. e65–e66, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. P. Camargos, G. B. Fischer, H. Mocelin, C. Dias, and R. Ruvinsky, “Penicillin resistance and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Latin America,” Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 209–214, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. L. E. Smart, “Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains by coagglutination,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 328–331, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. C. Clarke and M. A. Diggle, “Automated PCR/sequence template purification,” Molecular Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 221–224, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. M. C. Enright and B. G. Spratt, “A multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease,” Microbiology, vol. 144, no. 11, pp. 3049–3060, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Jefferies, S. C. Clarke, M. A. Diggle, A. Smith, C. Dowson, and T. Mitchell, “Automated pneumococcal MLST using liquid-handling robotics and a capillary DNA sequencer,” Molecular Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 303–307, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. C. B. Sullivan, J. M. C. Jefferies, M. A. Diggle, and S. C. Clarke, “Automation of MLST using third-generation liquid-handling technology,” Molecular Biotechnology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 219–225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. M. A. Diggle and S. C. Clarke, “Rapid assignment of nucleotide sequence data to allele types for multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of bacteria using an adapted database and modified alignment program,” Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 515–517, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. J. Feil, B. C. Li, D. M. Aanensen, W. P. Hanage, and B. G. Spratt, “eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. 1518–1530, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Schottmuller, “Die Artunterscheidung der fur den Menschen pathogenen Streptokokken durch Blutagar,” Munchen Medical Wochenschr, vol. 50, p. 908, 1903. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. D. Waite, J. K. Struthers, and C. G. Dowson, “Spontaneous sequence duplication within an open reading frame of the pneumococcal type 3 capsule locus causes high-frequency phase variation,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1223–1232, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. C. McEllistrem, J. V. Ransford, and S. A. Khan, “Characterization of in vitro biofilm-associated pneumococcal phase variants of a clinically relevant serotype 3 clone,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. D. S. Shouval, D. Greenberg, N. Givon-Lavi, N. Porat, and R. Dagan, “Site-specific disease potential of individual Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in pediatric invasive disease, acute otitis media and acute conjunctivitis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 602–607, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. M. C. McEllistrem, J. M. Adams, K. Patel et al., “Acute otitis media due to penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1738–1744, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  23. P. Martens, S. W. Worm, B. Lundgren, H. B. Konradsen, and T. Benfield, “Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, article 21, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. A. B. Brueggemann, D. T. Griffiths, E. Meats, T. Peto, D. W. Crook, and B. G. Spratt, “Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 1424–1432, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. F. G. Blake, “Observations on pneumococcus type III pneumonia,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 673–686, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  26. T. Kelly, J. P. Dillard, and J. Yother, “Effect of genetic switching of capsular type on virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1813–1819, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Ren, A. J. Szalai, O. Thomas, S. K. Hollingshead, and D. E. Briles, “Both family 1 and family 2 PspA proteins can inhibit complement deposition and confer virulence to a capsular serotype 3 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus