International Journal of Microbiology / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

Table 1

Examples of allothchonous human pathogens detected in coastal waters.


enterovirusesPresent in 9 of 72 1-liter samples using RT-PCR at Avalon Beach, CA*. Present in 1 of 18, 220-liter samples using culture based methods for brackish water in St. Lucie River Estuary, FL.[131, 132]
adenovirusesPresent in 15 of 30 250-liter samples using PCR at Silver Beach, MI*[133]
hepatitis A105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter using Q-RTPCR at Imperial Beach, CA*[134]
norovirus2 of 19 samples in 110-liters using RT-PCR at Key West sites (FL)*[135]
rotavirus (reovirus)2 of 19 sites with 2–5 MPN/L at Italian coastline[136]


CampylobacterDetected in 25 of 192 100–1000 mL Spanish marine recreational water samples using culture based methods[137]
SalmonellaDetected in 70%–100% of samples from a lagoon in Brazil using culture-based methods, volume assayed not reported[138]
Staphylococcus60%–70% of approx. 100 mL seawater samples from Doheny and Avalon Beach, CA using culture-based methods. 37% of 668, 50 mL seawater samples from Hobie Cat Beach, FL using culture-based methods and confirmation by PCR[139, 140]
Pathogenic E. coli 2 of 377 E. coli isolates from North Carolina and Southern California coastal waters using combined culture and PCR methods[141]
Shigella100% of algal mat samples from Lake Michigan near Burns Ditch by PCR[142]
Legionella sp.Found in 35 of 72 samples from Lake Pontchartrain with 1 of 72 positive for L. pneumophila [140]


Cryptosporidium oocysts/L on weekends at Chesapeake Bay beach, MD[143]
Giardia cysts/L on weekends at Chesapeake Bay beach, MD[143]

*Volumes reported do not account for the fact that a fraction of water sample was used during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse-transcriptase- (RT-) PCR, or quantitative (Q) PCR.