Examples of allothchonous human pathogens detected in coastal waters.
Viruses Concentration/Occurrence Reference enteroviruses Present in 9 of 72 1-liter samples using RT-PCR at Avalon Beach, CA*. Present in 1 of 18, 220-liter samples using culture based methods for brackish water in St. Lucie River Estuary, FL. [ 131, 132] adenoviruses Present in 15 of 30 250-liter samples using PCR at Silver Beach, MI* [ 133] hepatitis A 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter using Q-RTPCR at Imperial Beach, CA* [ 134] norovirus 2 of 19 samples in 110-liters using RT-PCR at Key West sites (FL)* [ 135] rotavirus (reovirus) 2 of 19 sites with 2–5 MPN/L at Italian coastline [ 136] Bacteria Campylobacter Detected in 25 of 192 100–1000 mL Spanish marine recreational water samples using culture based methods [ 137] Salmonella Detected in 70%–100% of samples from a lagoon in Brazil using culture-based methods, volume assayed not reported [ 138] Staphylococcus 60%–70% of approx. 100 mL seawater samples from Doheny and Avalon Beach, CA using culture-based methods. 37% of 668, 50 mL seawater samples from Hobie Cat Beach, FL using culture-based methods and confirmation by PCR [ 139, 140] Pathogenic E. coli 2 of 377 E. coli isolates from North Carolina and Southern California coastal waters using combined culture and PCR methods [ 141] Shigella 100% of algal mat samples from Lake Michigan near Burns Ditch by PCR [ 142] Legionella sp. Found in 35 of 72 samples from Lake Pontchartrain with 1 of 72 positive for L. pneumophila [ 140] Protozoa Cryptosporidium
oocysts/L on weekends at Chesapeake Bay beach, MD
[ 143] Giardia
cysts/L on weekends at Chesapeake Bay beach, MD
*Volumes reported do not account for the fact that a fraction of water sample was used during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse-transcriptase- (RT-) PCR, or quantitative (Q) PCR.