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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 268123, 5 pages
Review Article

Histoplasma Virulence and Host Responses

1Department of Medicine, Sound Shore Medical Center of Westchester, New Rochelle, NY 10802, USA
2Division of Infectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA

Received 12 July 2011; Accepted 9 August 2011

Academic Editor: Julian R. Naglik

Copyright © 2012 Mircea Radu Mihu and Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Histoplasma capsulatum is the most prevalent cause of fungal respiratory disease. The disease extent and outcomes are the result of the complex interaction between the pathogen and a host's immune system. The focus of our paper consists in presenting the current knowledge regarding the multiple facets of the dynamic host-pathogen relationship in the context of the virulence arsenal displayed by the fungus and the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host.