Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2012, Article ID 528521, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/528521
Review Article

Fungal Biofilm Resistance

1Glasgow Dental School, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G2 3JZ, UK
2Microbiology Department, Royal Hospital for Sick Children (Yorkhill Division), Dalnair Street, Glasgow G3 8SJ, UK

Received 22 July 2011; Accepted 23 October 2011

Academic Editor: Nir Osherov

Copyright © 2012 Gordon Ramage et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fungal biofilm infections have become increasingly recognised as a significant clinical problem. One of the major reasons behind this is the impact that these have upon treatment, as antifungal therapy often fails and surgical intervention is required. This places a large financial burden on health care providers. This paper aims to illustrate the importance of fungal biofilms, particularly Candida albicans, and discusses some of the key fungal biofilm resistance mechanisms that include, extracellular matrix (ECM), efflux pump activity, persisters, cell density, overexpression of drug targets, stress responses, and the general physiology of the cell. The paper demonstrates the multifaceted nature of fungal biofilm resistance, which encompasses some of the newest data and ideas in the field.