Table 4: Postharvest Listeria phage applications.

YearProduct Phage(s)StrategyMain outcomeRefs

2002Meat (ground beef)Phage-nisin mixtureApplied on top Phage-nisin mixture was effective in broth but not in buffer or on raw beef[81]
2003Fresh produce
(melons, apples)
Phage cocktail (LM-103, LM-102) combined with nisinApplied on top or sprayedPhage caused a CFU reduction of 2.0 to 4.6 log in melons and only 0.4 log in apples. Phage + nisin reduced CFU by 5.7 (melon) and 2.3 (apple) log[82]
2004Fresh produce
(honeydew melon)
Phage cocktailSprayedSpraying melon pieces 0 h up to 1 h after Listeria challenge reduced CFU by 6.8 log units after 7 days of storage[83]
2005Processed food
(red-smear soft cheese)
P100Applied to surfaces during the rind washingsReduction of CFU or complete eradication during the rind washings[84]
2009Processed food
(cooked ham)
P100Applied on topRapid 1 log reduction of CFU. 2 log reduction after 14 to 28 days of storage[85]
2009Fresh produce
(ready-to-eat products)
A511, P100Added to foodsIn liquid foods, eradication of bacterial cells. On solid foods reduction of CFU by up to 5 log [86]
(salmon fillet)
P100Applied on topComplete inhibition of growth at 4°C for 12 days, at 10°C for 8 days, and at 30°C for 4 days [64]
(catfish fillets)
P100Applied on topReduction of CFU by 1.4–2.0 log units at 4°C, 1.7–2.1 logs at 10°C, and 1.6–2.3 logs at 22°C[87]
2011Processed food
(red-smear cheese)
A511Applied on topCFU counts dropped 3 logs after 22 days. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth [88]
2011Processed food
(ready-to-eat chicken)
FWLLM1Added to foodsReduction of CFU by 2.5 log at 30°C. At 5°C, regrowth was prevented over 21 days[89]