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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2014, Article ID 452648, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/452648
Research Article

Childhood Septicemia in Nepal: Documenting the Bacterial Etiology and Its Susceptibility to Antibiotics

1Department of Microbiology, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal
2Department of Biochemistry, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal
3Asian College for Advance Studies, Satdobato, Kathmandu, Nepal

Received 31 October 2014; Revised 5 December 2014; Accepted 11 December 2014; Published 25 December 2014

Academic Editor: Maurizio Sanguinetti

Copyright © 2014 Shamshul Ansari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Children are among the most vulnerable population groups to contract illnesses. The varying microbiological pattern of septicemia warrants the need for an ongoing review of the causative organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Therefore, the objective of this study was to document the bacterial etiology of childhood septicemia and its antibiotic susceptibility profile. Methods. Cross-sectional type of study in 1630 suspected patients was conducted at CMCTH from January 2012 to December 2013. Blood samples were collected aseptically for culture. The organisms grown were identified by standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks methods. Results. Septicemia was detected in 172 (10.6%) cases. Among Gram-positive organisms, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) were leading pathogen and Acinetobacter spp. were leading pathogen among Gram-negative isolates. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics against Gram-positive isolates while amikacin was effective against Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative isolates. Methicillin resistance was detected in 44.4% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions. This study has highlighted the burden of bacterial etiology for septicemia among children in a tertiary care center of central Nepal.