Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4197187, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4197187
Research Article

Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt

Received 12 May 2016; Revised 18 June 2016; Accepted 4 July 2016

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Comi

Copyright © 2016 Walaa Shawky Khater and Safia Hamed Elabd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Van De Beek, J. De Gans, L. Spanjaard, M. Weisfelt, J. B. Reitsma, and M. Vermeulen, “Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 18, pp. 1849–1923, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. A. Namani, R. A. Koci, E. Qehaja-Buçaj, L. Ajazaj-Berisha, and M. Mehmeti, “The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo,” Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 823–830, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. C. Brouwer, A. R. Tunkel, and D. Van De Beek, “Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 467–492, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Fouad, M. Khairy, W. Fathalah, T. Gad, B. El-Kholy, and A. Yosry, “Role of clinical presentations and routine CSF analysis in the rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in cases of negative gram stained smears,” Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 213762, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. E. Corless, M. Guiver, R. Borrow, V. Edwards-Jones, A. J. Fox, and E. B. Kaczmarski, “Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in suspected cases of meningitis and septicemia using real-time PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1553–1558, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. M. K. Abdeldaim, K. Strålin, J. Korsgaard, J. Blomberg, C. Welinder-Olsson, and B. Herrmann, “Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 10, article 310, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Wang, G. Guo, H. Wang et al., “Comparative study of bacteriological culture and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay in the diagnosis of bacterial neonatal meningitis,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 14, no. 1, article 224, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. W. Bijlsma, M. C. Brouwer, E. S. Kasanmoentalib et al., “Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults in the Netherlands, 2006–2014: a prospective cohort study,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 339–447, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. M. Wu, S. M. Cordeiro, B. H. Harcourt et al., “Accuracy of real-time PCR, Gram stain and culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis diagnosis,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, article 26, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. D. Saravolatz, O. Manzor, N. VanderVelde, J. Pawlak, and B. Belian, “Broad-range bacterial polymerase chain reaction for early detection of bacterial meningitis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Ahmadi, A. Akya, B. Numanpour, A. Salimi, and A. Veisi-Raigani, “Frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in patients with suspected meningitis in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah in the west of Iran,” Iranian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. E. Nigrovic, R. Malley, C. G. Macias et al., “Effect of antibiotic pretreatment on cerebrospinal fluid profiles of children with bacterial meningitis,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 726–730, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. P. Bryan, H. Rodriques de Silva, A. Tavares, H. Rocha, and W. M. Scheld, “Etiology and mortality of bacterial meningitis in northeastern Brazil,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 128–135, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. R. Tunkel, B. J. Hartman, S. L. Kaplan et al., “Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1267–1284, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. E. Nigrovic, N. Kuppermann, A. J. McAdam, and R. Malley, “Cerebrospinal latex agglutination fails to contribute to the microbiologic diagnosis of pretreated children with meningitis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 786–788, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Tarafdar, S. Rao, R. A. Recco, and M. M. Zaman, “Lack of sensitivity of the latex agglutination test to detect bacterial antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with culture-negative meningitis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 406–408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Van Gastel, P. Bruynseels, W. Verstrepen, and A. Mertens, “Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a tertiary care hospital,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 651–653, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Tuyama, R. F. Boente, M. C. Rebelo, R. P. Igreja, and D. E. Barroso, “The utility of the polymerase chain reaction assay for aetiologic definition of unspecified bacterial meningitis cases,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 138–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. T. Sacchi, L. O. Fukasawa, M. G. Gonçalves et al., “Incorporation of real-time PCR into routine Public Health Surveillance of Culture Negative Bacterial meningitis in São Paulo, Brazil,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e20675, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Heydaria, H. Khalilib, I. Karimzadehc, and H. Emadi-Kochak, “Clinical, paraclinical, and antimicrobial resistance features of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis at a large infectious diseases ward in Tehran, Iran,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 15, pp. 347–354, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Cheesebrough, “Biochemical tests to identify bacteria,” in District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, M. Cheesbrough, Ed., pp. 116–124, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  22. K. Ohkusu, K. A. Nash, and C. B. Inderlied, “Molecular characterisation of Haemophilus influenzae type a and untypeable strains isolated simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid and blood: novel use of quantitative real-time PCR based on the cap copy number to determine virulence,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 637–643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Ragunathan, M. Ramsay, R. Borrow, M. Guiver, S. Gray, and E. B. Kaczmarski, “Clinical features, laboratory findings and management of meningococcal meningitis in England and Wales: report of a 1997 survey,” Journal of Infection, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Guirguis, K. Hafez, M. A. El Kholy, J. B. Robbins, and E. C. Gotschlich, “Bacterial meningitis in Egypt: analysis of CSF isolates from hospital patients in Cairo, 1977-1978,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 517–524, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. G. Youssef, H. El-Sakka, A. Azab et al., “Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis among children in Egypt,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 44–48, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. L. Durand, S. B. Calderwood, D. J. Weber et al., “Acute bacterial meningitis in adults: a review of 493 episodes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Sigurdardóttir, Ó. M. Björnsson, K. E. Jónsdóttir, H. Erlendsdóttir, and S. Gudmundsson, “Acute bacterial meningitis in adults: a 20-year overview,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 425–430, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Arda, O. R. Sipahi, S. Atalay, and S. Ulusoy, “Pooled analysis of 2,408 cases of acute adult purulent meningitis from Turkey,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 76–79, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Scarborough, S. B. Gordon, C. J. M. Whitty et al., “Corticosteroids for bacterial meningitis in adults in sub-Saharan Africa,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 24, pp. 2441–2450, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Scarborough and G. E. Thwaites, “The diagnosis and management of acute bacterial meningitis in resource-poor settings,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 637–648, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Campagne, A. Schuchat, S. Djibo, A. Ousséini, L. Cissé, and J. P. Chippaux, “Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981–96,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 499–508, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Afifi, M. O. Wasfy, M. A. Azab et al., “Laboratory-based surveillance of patients with bacterial meningitis in Egypt (1998–2004),” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 331–340, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Shaban and R. Siam, “Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt,” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, vol. 8, article 26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. C. Brouwer, A. R. Tunkel, and D. Van De Beek, “Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 467–492, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus