Table 2: Recent examples of clinical trials with bacteria mediated tumor therapy (BMTT) since 2002.

SpeciesYearCohortResultReferences

S. Typhimurium 
(VNP20009)
200224 patients with metastatic melanoma; 1 patient with metastatic renal cell carcinomaInduction of immune response, tumor colonization in 3 cases, no antitumor response[53]
S. Typhimurium 
(TAPET-CD)
20033 patients with advanced and metastatic solid tumors66% tumor colonization, measurable activity of cytosine deaminase in tumor[107]
C. novyi-NT20141 patient with advanced leiomyosarcomaTumor reduction within and surrounding the bone[34]
C. novyi-NTActivePatients with solid tumors that do not respond to standard therapyRecruitment (NCT01924689)
L. monocytogenes
(ANZ-100 and CRS-207)
201126 patients with solid tumors (liver, pancreas, lung, or ovary)Safe vaccines that resulted in immune activation[64]
L. monocytogenes
(CRS-207)
Active90 patients with pancreatic cancerExtended survival with minimal toxicity[136]

C. = Clostridium; L. = Listeria; S. = Salmonella.