Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2016, Article ID 8724671, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8724671
Research Article

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Are Major Threats of Otitis Media in Wollo Area, Northeastern Ethiopia: A Ten-Year Retrospective Analysis

1Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
2Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, P.O. Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia
3Microbiology Unit, Dessie Regional Health Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 686, Dessie, Ethiopia

Received 20 August 2015; Revised 17 November 2015; Accepted 24 December 2015

Academic Editor: Liang-Chun Liu

Copyright © 2016 Ayele Argaw-Denboba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Ullauri, A. Smith, M. Espinel, C. Jimenez, C. Salazar, and R. Castrillon, “WHO ear and hearing disorders survey: Ecuador national study 2008-2009,” Conference Papers in Science, vol. 2014, Article ID 847526, 13 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. World Health Organization, “Deafness and hearing loss,” Fact Sheet 300, 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en/. View at Google Scholar
  3. P. W. Alberti, “The pathophysiology of the ear,” in Occupational Exposure to Noise Evaluation, Prevention and Control, B. Goelzer, C. H. Hansen, and G. A. Sehrndt, Eds., pp. 63–78, World Health Organization (WHO), 2001. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper, D. L. Longo et al., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 17th edition, 2008.
  5. O. A. Afolabi, A. G. Salaudeen, F. E. Ologe, C. Nwabuisi, and C. C. Nwawolo, “Pattern of bacterial isolates in the middle ear discharge of patients with chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary hospital in north central Nigeria,” African Health Sciences, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 362–368, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Europe 2013. Annual Report of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net), ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden, 2014.
  7. S. Forgie, G. Zhanel, and J. Robinson, “Management of acute otitis media,” Paediatrics & Child Health, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 457–460, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. E. Tobih, S. S. Taiwo, O. A. Olowe, O. A. Olaosun, and S. D. Adejumo, “Clinical and microbiological profiles of ear infections in Osogbo, Nigeria,” Tropical Doctor, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 165–166, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. J. Sosa, D. K. Byarugaba, C. F. Amabile-Cuevas, P. R. Hsueh, S. Kariuki, and I. N. Okeke, Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  10. World Health Organization, Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance, World Health Organization, 2014.
  11. B. Edwin, V. Prasanna, I. Kannan, V. H. Katiyar, and E. Dhanapal, “Incidence of bacterial colonization in the oropharynx of patients with ear, nose and throat infections,” International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 931–934, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Melaku and S. Lulseged, “Chronic suppurative otitis media in children hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 237–246, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. Ferede, A. Geyid, S. Lulseged, and A. Melaku, “Drug susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from children with chronic suppurative otitis media,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. D. Muleta, S. Gebre-Selassie, and H. Nida, “Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens causing otitis media in children in Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 14, pp. 89–100, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. B. Abera and F. Biadeglegne, “Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp. Isolated from otitis media at Bahir Dar Regional Laboratory, North West Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 271–276, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Tesfaye, D. Asrat, Y. Woldeamanuel, and M. Gizaw, “Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Abera and M. Kibret, “Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media at dessie regional health research laboratory, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 161–167, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Seid, F. Deribe, K. Ali, and G. Kibru, “Bacterial otitis media in all age group of patients seen at Dessie referral hospital, North East Ethiopia,” Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 73–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Muluye, Y. Wondimeneh, G. Ferede, F. Moges, and T. Nega, “Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of ear discharge from patients with ear infection at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia,” BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders, vol. 13, no. 1, article 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. CSA, Population Projection of Ethiopia for all Regions at Woreda Level from 2014–2017, Central Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013.
  21. M. Cheesbourgh, Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Part 2, Butterworthr-Heineman LTD, England, UK, 2nd edition, 2006.
  22. A. W. Bauer, W. M. Kirby, J. C. Sherris, and M. Turch, “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 493–496, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  23. V. Yiengprugsawan and A. Hogan, “Ear infection and its associated risk factors, comorbidity, and health service use in Australian children,” International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2013, Article ID 963132, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. C. Llor and L. Bjerrum, “Antimicrobial resistance: risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem,” Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 229–241, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. M. Livermore, “Current epidemiology and growing resistance of Gram-negative pathogens,” The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 128–142, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. H. Kollef, “Broad-spectrum antimicrobials and the treatment of serious bacterial infections: getting it right up front,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S3–S13, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. L. Paradise, H. E. Rockette, D. K. Colborn et al., “Otitis media in 2253 Pittsburgh-area infants: prevalence and risk factors during the first two years of life,” Pediatrics, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 318–333, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Mittal, G. Robalino, R. Gerring et al., “Immunity genes and susceptibility to otitis media: a comprehensive review,” Journal of Genetics and Genomics, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 567–581, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. O. Lasisi, “The chronic discharging ear in the Sub Saharan Africa: need for improved management,” The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 7, no. 2, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  30. T. Tapiainen, T. Kujala, M. Renko et al., “Effect of antimicrobial treatment of acute otitis media on the daily disappearance of middle ear effusion: a placebo-controlled trial,” JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 168, no. 7, pp. 635–641, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Mansoor, M. A. Musani, G. Khalid, and M. Kamal, “Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic suppurative otitis media: sensitivity spectrum against various antibiotics in Karachi,” Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 120–123, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Osazuwa, E. Osazuwa, C. Osime et al., “Etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin City, Nigeria,” North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95–98, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. J. Tanon-Anoh, A. Kacou-Ndouba, M. Yoda, E. Ette-Akre, D. Sanogo, and B. Kouassi, “Particularities of bacterial ecology of acute otitis media in an African subtropical country (Cote d'Ivoire),” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 817–822, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Illing and O. Olaleye, “Malignant otitis externa: a review of aetiology, presentation, investigations and current management strategies,” Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 2, no. 3, Article ID WMC001725, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. R. Bovo, A. Benatti, A. Ciorba, M. Libanore, M. Borrelli, and A. Martini, “Pseudomonas and Aspergillus interaction in malignant external otitis: risk of treatment failure,” Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 416–419, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. H. Weckwerth, C. A. de Magalhães Lopes, M. A. H. Duarte et al., “Chronic suppurative otitis media in cleft palate: microorganism etiology and susceptibilities,” The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 461–467, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. E. Alsaimary, A. M. Alabbasi, and J. M. Najim, “Antibiotics susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media,” Journal of Bacteriology Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 41–50, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. P. K. Feglo, S. Y. Gbedema, S. N. A. Quay, Y. Adu-Sarkodie, and C. Opoku-Okrah, “Occurrence, species distribution and antibiotic resistance of Proteus isolates: a case study at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 347–352, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  39. S. A. Bahashwan and H. M. El Shafey, “Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Proteus isolates from clinical specimens,” European Scientific Journal, vol. 9, no. 27, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. M.-X. Zou, R.-R. Zhou, W.-J. Wu et al., “Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Changsha area,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 125, no. 13, pp. 2289–2294, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. E. Udobi, A. F. Obajuluwa, and J. A. Onaolapo, “Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from an orthopaedic hospital in Nigeria,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 860467, 4 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. S. Amadi, P. N. Uzoaru, I. Orji, A. A. Nwaziri, and I. R. Iroha, “Antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Enugu and Abakaliki, Nigeria,” Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, article 9474, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. A. Abejew, A. A. Denboba, and A. G. Mekonnen, “Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of urinary tract bacterial infections in Dessie area, Northeast Ethiopia,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 7, no. 1, article 687, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. S. O'Brien, S. Blumberg, W. T. A. Enanoria, S. Ackley, N. Sippl-Swezey, and T. M. Lietman, “Antibiotic use as a tragedy of the commons: a cross-sectional survey,” Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 837929, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. N. Kimang'a, “A situational analysis of antimicrobial drug resistance in Africa: are we losing the battle?” Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 135–143, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  46. L. J. McGrath, S. Becker-Dreps, V. Pate, and M. A. Brookhart, “Trends in antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media and treatment failure in children, 2000–2011,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, Article ID e81210, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. O. Ibekwe, Z. A. L. Shareef, and A. Benayam, “Anaerobes and fungi in chronic suppurative otitis media,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, vol. 106, no. 8, pp. 649–652, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. A. Aslam, Z. Ahmed, and R. Azim, “Microbiology and drug sensitivity patterns of chronic suppurative otitis media,” Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 459–461, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. Kwiecińska-Piróg, K. Skowron, K. Zniszczol, and E. Gospodarek, “The assessment of Proteus mirabilis susceptibility to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin and the impact of these antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations on Proteus mirabilis biofilms,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 930876, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Mösges, M. Nematian-Samani, and A. Eichel, “Treatment of acute otitis externa with ciprofloxacin otic 0.2% antibiotic ear solution,” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 325–336, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. G. S. Renukananda, U. P. Santosh, and N. M. George, “Topical vs combination ciprofloxacin in the management of discharging chronic suppurative otitis media,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. KC01–KC04, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. EFMHACA, Standard Treatment Guidelinesfor Primary Hospital, The Ethiopian Food, Medicine and Healthcare Administration and Control Authority (EFMHACA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 3rd edition, 2014.
  53. S. Gebre-Sealsssie, “Antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinical bacterial isolates in southwestern Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 363–370, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Gupta, T. M. Hooton, K. G. Naber et al., “International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. e103–e120, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus