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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4042686, 7 pages
Research Article

Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City, Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bugando Medical Centre, P.O. Box 1370, Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania
3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania
4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1

Correspondence should be addressed to Jeremiah Seni

Received 14 November 2016; Accepted 12 January 2017; Published 31 January 2017

Academic Editor: Karl Drlica

Copyright © 2017 Tito Chaula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1–26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, ). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1, and ), low CD4+ counts of <200/μL (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1–7.7, and ), and having UTI symptoms (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1–6.0, and ) were independent predictors of UTI. Escherichia coli predominated (57.7%) and exhibited a low prevalence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (16.7%), gentamicin (10.0%), and ceftriaxone (13.3%). Four (13.3%) of these were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Conclusions. A considerable proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza have significant bacteriuria which calls for the need to introduce routine UTI screening at PMTCT clinics to guide specific treatment and prevent associated complications.