Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8532736, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8532736
Review Article

Automated Flow Cytometry: An Alternative to Urine Culture in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory?

1Department of Microbiology, Hospital del Oriente de Asturias Francisco Grande Covián, Arriondas, Asturias, Spain
2Department of Biochemistry, Hospital del Oriente de Asturias Francisco Grande Covián, Arriondas, Asturias, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Patricia Mejuto; moc.liamg@vlotujemaicirtap

Received 11 July 2017; Accepted 22 August 2017; Published 27 September 2017

Academic Editor: Maurizio Sanguinetti

Copyright © 2017 Patricia Mejuto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. G. Naber, “Urogenital infections: the pivotal role of the urologist,” European Urology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 657–659, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Santra, P. Eeva-Liisa, K. Pauliina, and et al., “Screening of urine samples by flow cytometry reduces the need for culture,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 3117–3121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. C. dos Santos, L. P. Weber, and L. R. R. Perez, “Evaluation of urinalysis parameters to predict urinary-tract infection,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 479–481, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Foxman, “Urinary tract infection syndromes. Occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. M. Hooton, “Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections: an update,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 46, S1, pp. 1–7, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. J. Matthews and J. W. Lancaster, “Urinary tract infections in the elderly population,” American Journal Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 286–309, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Foxman, “Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. Z. Tandogdu and F. M. Wagenlehner, “Global epidemiology of urinary tract infections,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. P. Horcajada, E. Shaw, B. Padilla et al., “Healthcare-associated, community-acquired and hospital-acquired bacteraemic urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients: A prospective multicentre cohort study in the era of antimicrobial resistance,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 962–968, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. ECDC 2012, Annual epidemiological report: reporting on 2010 surveillance data and 2011 epidemic intelligence data, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012, http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/publications/annual-epidemiological-report-2012.pdf.
  11. K. G. Naber et al., EAU/International Consultation on Urological Infections, The Netherlands European Association of urology, 2010.
  12. A. Sorlozano, A. Jimenez-Pacheco, J. de Dios Luna del Castillo et al., “Evolution of the resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections: a 7-year surveillance study,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1033–1038, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. EM. Davies and DA. Lewis, “Bacteriology of urine,” in Medical bacteriology Oxford, P. Hawkey and DA. Lewis, Eds., pp. 1–25, Oxford University Press, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. A. C. Broeren, S. Bahçeci, H. L. Vader, and N. L. A. Arents, “Screening for urinary tract infection with the sysmex UF-1000i urine flow cytometer,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1025–1029, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Jolkkonen, E.-L. Paattiniemi, P. Kärpänoja, and H. Sarkkinen, “Screening of urine samples by flow cytometry reduces the need for culture,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 3117–3121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. E. Berger, “The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 941-942, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. Y. Waisman, E. Zerem, L. Amir, and M. Mimouni, “The validity of the uriscreen test for early detection of urinary tract infection in children.,” Pediatrics, vol. 104, no. 4, p. e41, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Wiwanitkit, N. Udomsantisuk, and C. Boonchalermvichian, “Diagnostic value and cost utility analysis for urine Gram stain and urine microscopic examination as screening tests for urinary tract infection,” Urological Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 220–222, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Grosso, G. Bruschetta, and R. De Rosa, “Improving the efficiency and efficacy of pre-analytical and analytical workflow of urine cultures with urinary flow citometry,” New Microbiol, vol. 31, pp. 501–505, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  20. W. J. Isaac, D. E. Low, A. Biringer, N. Pimlott, M. Evans, and R. Glazier, “The impact of empirical management of acute cystitis on unnecessary antibiotic use,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 5, pp. 600–605, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Monsen and P. Rydén, “Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 539–545, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. García-Coca, I. Gadea, and J. Esteban, “Relationship between conventional culture and flow cytometry for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 137, pp. 14–18, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Kulkarni and J. Nigrin, “Letter to the Editor re: “Performance of flow cytometry to screen urine for bacteria and white blood cells prior to urine culture”,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 18, pp. 1914-1915, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Íñigo, A. Coello, G. Fernández-Rivas et al., “Evaluation of the SediMax automated microscopy sediment analyzer and the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer as screening tools to rule out negative urinary tract infections,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 456, pp. 31–35, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Gessoni, G. Saccani, S. Valverde, F. Manoni, and M. Caputo, “Does flow cytometry have a role in preliminary differentiation between urinary tract infections sustained by gram positive and gram negative bacteria? An Italian polycentric study,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 440, pp. 152–156, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Martín-Gutiérrez, A. Porras-González, C. Martín-Pérez, J. A. Lepe, and J. Aznar, “Evaluation and optimization of the Sysmex UF1000i system for the screening of urinary tract infection in primary health care elderly patients,” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 320–323, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. Manoni, L. Fornasiero, M. Ercolin et al., “Cutoff values for bacteria and leukocytes for urine flow cytometer Sysmex UF-1000i in urinary tract infections,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 103–107, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Marschal, M. Wienke, S. Hoering, I. B. Autenrieth, and J.-S. Frick, “Evaluation of 3 different rapid automated systems for diagnosis of urinary tract infections,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Gutiérrez-Fernández, A. Lara, M. Bautista et al., “Performance of the Sysmex UF1000i system in screening for significant bacteriuria before quantitative culture of aerobic/facultative fast-growth bacteria in a reference hospital,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 609–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. K. Kadkhoda, K. Manickam, P. DeGagne et al., “UF-1000i™ flow cytometry is an effective screening method for urine specimens,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Pieretti, P. Brunati, B. Pini et al., “Diagnosis of bacteriuria and leukocyturia by automated flow cytometry compared with urine culture,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3990–3996, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. C. van der Zwet, J. Hessels, F. Canbolat, and M. M. L. Deckers, “Evaluation of the Sysmex UF-1000i® urine flow cytometer in the diagnostic work-up of suspected urinary tract infection in a Dutch general hospital,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1765–1771, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. De Rosa, S. Grosso, G. Bruschetta et al., “Evaluation of the Sysmex UF1000i flow cytometer for ruling out bacterial urinary tract infection,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 411, no. 1-16, pp. 1137–1142, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Shang, Q. Wang, J. Zhang et al., “Systematic review and meta-analysis of flow cytometry in urinary tract infection screening,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 424, pp. 90–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Hu, J. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Evaluation of the sysmex UF-1000i urine analyzer as a screening test to reduce the need for urine cultures for urinary tract infection,” Laboratory Medicine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 349–352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Kouri, G. Fogazzi, V. Gant et al., “European urinalysis guidelines,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 60, supplement 231, pp. 1–96, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  37. G. Schmiemann, E. Kniehl, K. Gebhardt, M. M. Matejczyk, and E. Hummers-Pradier, “The diagnosis of urinary tract infection. A systematic review,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, vol. 107, no. 21, pp. 361–367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. L. S. Garcia, Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, American Society for Microbiology Press, 3rd edition, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. E. H. Kass, “Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy,” A.M.A Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 194–198, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Guidelines on Urological Infections, “European Association of Urology,” http://www.uroweb.org/nc/professional-resources/guidelines/online/.
  41. L. E. Nicolle, S. Bradley, R. Colgan, J. C. Rice, A. Schaeffer, and T. M. Hooton, “Infectious diseases society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 643–654, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. M. File Jr., “Highlights from international clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of America and the european society for microbiology and infectious diseases,” Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 282-283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. R. Delanghe, T. T. Kouri, A. R. Huber et al., “The role of automated urine particle flow cytometry in clinical practice,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 301, no. 1-2, pp. 1–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. M. Davey, A. S. Kaprelyants, D. H. Weichart et al., Estimation of Microbial Viability Using Flow Cytometry. Current Protocols in Cytometry, vol. 11, New York Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  45. B. Moshaver, F. de Boer, H. van Egmond-Kreileman, E. Kramer, C. Stegeman, and P. Groeneveld, “Fast and accurate prediction of positive and negative urine cultures by flow cytometry,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 1, article no. 211, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Gieteling et al., “Accurate and fast diagnostic algorithm for febrile urinary tract infections in humans,” The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 356–362, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  47. Z. Zaman, S. Roggeman, and J. Verhaegen, “Unsatisfactory performance of flow cytometer UF-100 and urine strips in predicting outcome of urine cultures,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 4169–4171, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. K. Shine, J. K. Young, M. L. Sun et al., “Evaluation of the Sysmex UF-100 urine cell analyzer as a screening test to reduce the need for urine cultures for community-acquired urinary tract infection,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 922–925, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Manoni, S. Valverde, F. Antico, M. M. Salvadego, A. Giacomini, and G. Gessoni, “Field evaluation of a second-generation cytometer UF-100 in diagnosis of acute urinary tract infections in adult patients,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 662–668, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Krongvoraluk et al., “A flow cytometric urine analyzer for bacteria and white blood cell counts plus urine dispstick test for rapid screening of bacterial urinary tract infection,” Asian Biomedicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 601–608, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  51. N. Geerts, K. Boonen, A. Boer, and V. Scharnhorst, “Cut-off values to rule out urinary tract infection should be gender-specific,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 452, pp. 173–176, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, W. Shao, and Y. Lu, “Evaluation of the sysmex UF-1000i for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 577–582, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Okada, T. Shirakawa, A. Gotoh et al., “Enumeration of bacterial cell numbers and detection of significant bacteriuria by use of a new flow cytometry-based device,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 3596–3599, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. Yasuma, M. Nagao, Y. Matsumura et al., “[Evaluation of a UF-1000i screening method to identify the bacteriuria for cultures and susceptibility testing].,” Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1070–1074, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Ilki, R. Ayas, S. Ozsoy, and G. Soyletir, “Cost-effectiveness of a new system in ruling out negative urine cultures on the day of administration,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, pp. 1–5, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. Schmiemann, I. Gágyor, E. Hummers-Pradier, and J. Bleidorn, “Resistance profiles of urinary tract infections in general practice - An observational study,” BMC Urology, vol. 12, article no. 33, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. M. Haslund, M. Rosborg Dinesen, A. B. Sternhagen Nielsen, C. Llor, and L. Bjerrum, “Different recommendations for empiric first-choice antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Europe,” Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 235–240, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. X.-H. Wang, G. Zhang, Y.-Y. Fan, X. Yang, W.-J. Sui, and X.-X. Lu, “Direct identification of bacteria causing urinary tract infections by combining matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry with UF-1000i urine flow cytometry,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 231–235, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. Ferreira, F. Sánchez-Juanes, J. L. Muñoz-Bellido, and J. M. González-Buitrago, “Rapid method for direct identification of bacteria in urine and blood culture samples by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Intact cell vs. extraction method,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1007–1012, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Fritzenwanker, C. Imirzalioglu, T. Chakraborty, and F. M. Wagenlehner, “Modern diagnostic methods for urinary tract infections,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1047–1063, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus