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International Journal of Microbiology
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 6280484, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6280484
Research Article

Bacterial Community of the Rice Floodwater Using Cultivation-Independent Approaches

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), 950 Unisinos Avenue, São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil
2United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Stored Product Insect and Engineering Research Unit (SPIERU), 1515 College Ave., Manhattan, KS, USA
3United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU), 251 Filley Hall, UNL East Campus, Lincoln, NE, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Michele Pittol

Received 2 August 2017; Revised 9 December 2017; Accepted 26 December 2017; Published 30 January 2018

Academic Editor: Clemencia Chaves-López

Copyright © 2018 Michele Pittol et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In agricultural systems, interactions between plants and microorganisms are important to maintaining production and profitability. In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages. During the vegetative stage, 1551 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, while less than half that number (603) were identified in the reproductive stage. The higher bacterial richness observed in floodwater collected during the vegetative stage may have been favored by the higher concentration of nutrients, such as potassium, due to rhizodeposition and fertilizer application. Eighteen bacterial phyla were identified in both samples. Both communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. In the vegetative stage, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were more abundant and, in contrast, Bacilli and Clostridia were the more dominant classes in the reproductive stage. The major bacterial taxa identified have been previously identified as important colonizers of rice fields. The richness and composition of bacterial communities over cultivation time may contribute to the sustainability of the crop.