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Exact Solution of Modified Veselov–Novikov Equation and Some Applications in the Game Theory
A method of finding exact solutions of the modified Veselov–Novikov (mVN) equation is constructed by Moutard transformations, and a geometric interpretation of these transformations is obtained. An exact solution of the mVN equation is found on the example of a higher order Enneper surface, and given transformations are applied in the game theory via Kazakh proverbs in terms of trees.
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of an Alcohol Drinking Model with the Influence of Alcohol Treatment Centers
In this paper, we present a continuous mathematical model of alcohol drinking with the influence of private and public addiction treatment centers. We study the dynamical behavior of this model and we discuss the basic properties of the system and determine its basic reproduction number . We also study the sensitivity analysis of model parameters to know the parameters that have a high impact on the reproduction number . The stability analysis of the model shows that the system is locally as well as globally asymptotically stable at drinking-free equilibrium when . When , drinking present equilibrium exists and the system is locally as well as globally asymptotically stable at alcohol present equilibrium .
Lower Bound for the Class Number of
In this paper, we give an explicit lower bound for the class number of real quadratic field , where is a square-free integer, using which is the number of odd prime divisors of .
Rational Cohomology Algebra of Mapping Spaces between Complex Grassmannians
We consider the complex Grassmannian of k-dimensional subspaces of . There is a natural inclusion . Here, we use Sullivan models to compute the rational cohomology algebra of the component of the inclusion in the space of mappings from to for and in particular to show that the cohomology of contains a truncated algebra , where , for and .
New Bounds on 2-Frameproof Codes of Length 4
Frameproof codes were first introduced by Boneh and Shaw in 1998 in the context of digital fingerprinting to protect copyrighted materials. These digital fingerprints are generally denoted as codewords in , where Q is an alphabet of size q and n is a positive integer. A 2-frameproof code is a code C such that any 2 codewords in C cannot form a new codeword under a particular rule. Thus, no pair of users can frame a user who is not a member of the coalition. This paper concentrates on the upper bound for the size of a q-ary 2-frameproof code of length 4. Our new upper bound shows that when q is odd and .
Estimation of the Value at Risk Using the Stochastic Approach of Taylor Formula
The aim of this paper is to provide an approximation of the value-at-risk of the multivariate copula associated with financial loss and profit function. A higher dimensional extension of the Taylor–Young formula is used for this estimation in a Euclidean space. Moreover, a time-varying and conditional copula is used for the modeling of the VaR.