Kidney Disease-Specific Quality of Life among Patients on HemodialysisRead the full article
International Journal of Nephrology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders.
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Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Transition Probabilities in a Large Preventive Cohort in Colombia
Background. Variability in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is a well-known phenomenon that underlines the importance of characterizing the said outcome in specific populations. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time and determine the frequency of dialysis admission and factors associated with this outcome, to estimate the rate of program’s loss-to-follow-up and the probability of transition between CKD stages over time. Methods. The study type was an observational analytic retrospective cohort in patients treated in a CKD prevention program in Bogota, Colombia, between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until December 31, 2018. Adult participants of 18 years of age or older with diagnosed CKD stages G3 or G4 were enrolled into a prevention program. For each patient, the rate of progression of CKD in ml/min/1.73 m2/year was estimated using the ordinary least-squares method. Dialysis initiation and program’s loss-to-follow-up rates were calculated. Heat maps were used to present probabilities of transitioning between various CKD stages over time. Survival model with competing risks was used to evaluate factors associated with dialysis initiation. Results. A total of 2752 patients met inclusion criteria and contributed with 14133 patient-years of follow-up and 200 dialysis initiation events, which represents a rate of 1.4 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6). The median change of the eGFR for the entire cohort was −0.47 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, and in the diabetic population, it was −1.55 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. The program’s loss-to-follow-up rate was 2.6 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 2.3 to 2.9). Probabilities of CKD stage transitions are presented in heat maps. Female sex, older age, baseline eGFR, and serum albumin were associated with lower risk of dialysis initiation while CKD etiology diabetes, cardiovascular disease history, systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, and LDL cholesterol were associated with a higher likelihood of dialysis initiation. Conclusions. A CKD secondary prevention program’s key indicator is reported here, such as dialysis initiation, progression rate, and program drop-out; CKD progression appears to be correlated with diabetic status and timing of referral into the preventive program.
Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Hemodialysis Patients in Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction. The level of vitamin D status and its relationship to kidney function and liver function among patients with and without type 2 diabetes were not studied among Palestinian hemodialysis patients before. The aim of this study was to assess the status of vitamin D in hemodialysis patients with and without type 2 diabetes and its determinants. Methods. Data were collected on 163 patients on hemodialysis therapy in the Nephrology Department at Najah National University Hospital. Information on age, sex, plasma 25 (OH)D, serum calcium, serum phosphate, parathyroid hormone, dialysis period, hypertension, diabetes, ALT, AST, albumin, alkaline phosphates, and BMI was obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Findings. The mean level of 25 (OH)D was 17.3 ± 10.5 ng/ml. Only 12.9% of subjects had 25 (OH)D levels >30 ng/ml, whereas 65% had levels between 10 and 30 ng/ml; the remaining 22.1% were severely vitamin D deficient (<10 ng/ml). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among females. It was not related to PTH, calcium, kidney, or liver function tests. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients on hemodialysis with or without DM2.
Efficacy of Weekly Split versus Single Doses of Ergocalciferol on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem among patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Vitamin D supplementation leads to reduced serum parathyroid hormone levels and improved cardiovascular markers. Different doses and time intervals of oral vitamin D supplementation may differ in each patient on dialysis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of weekly split and single dose of ergocalciferol at 60,000 IU on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among patients on CAPD. Methods. A randomized study was conducted among patients on CAPD with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the split dose group was given ergocalciferol 20,000 IU three times weekly and the single dose group was given ergocalciferol 60,000 IU once weekly for 8 weeks. Main outcomes measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations, serum calcium, serum phosphate, and intact parathyroid levels at 8 weeks after being enrolled. Results. Of 128 screened patients, 50 met the criteria for eligibility and were randomized. At 8 weeks after treatment, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations significantly increased from baseline 22.7 ± 5.9 to 29.5 ± 9.5 ng/mL in the split dose group and 22.9 ± 5.3 to 31.2 ± 12.3 ng/mL in the single dose group. No significant change was found in increase of serum 25(OH)D between the two groups . At the end of study, a similar proportion of patients in both groups reached the desirable serum concentration of 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL (60% in the single group vs. 40% in the split group, ). No significant cases of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, or serious adverse events occurred during the study. Conclusion. Weekly single and split doses of ergocalciferol 60,000 IU achieved similar effects on serum 25(OH)D levels among patients on CAPD with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, suggesting that weekly single dose would be prescribed for adequate vitamin D repletion. This trial is registered with TCTR20200821005.
PAC-Mediated AKI Protection Is Critically Mediated but Does Not Exclusively Depend on Cell-Derived Microvesicles
Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly worsens the prognosis of hospitalized patients. In recent years, cell-based strategies have been established as a reliable option for improving AKI outcomes in experimental AKI. Our previous studies focused on the so-called proangiogenic cells (PACs). Mechanisms that contribute to PAC-mediated AKI protection include production/secretion of extracellular vesicles (MV, microvesicles). In addition, the cells most likely act by paracrinic processes (secretome). The current study evaluated whether AKI may be preventable by the administration of either PAC-derived MV and/or the secretome alone. Methods. AKI was induced in male C57/Bl6N mice (8–12 weeks) by bilateral renal ischemia (IRI-40 minutes). Syngeneic murine PACs were stimulated with either melatonin, angiopoietin-1 or -2, or with bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) for one hour, respectively. PAC-derived MV and the vesicle-depleted supernatant were subsequently collected and i.v.-injected after ischemia. Mice were analyzed 48 hours later. Results. IRI induced significant kidney excretory dysfunction as reflected by higher serum cystatin C levels. The only measure that improved AKI was the injection of MV, collected from native PACs. The following conditions worsened after ischemic renal function even further: MV + Ang-1, MV + BMP-5, MV + melatonin, and MV + secretome + Ang-1. Conclusion. Together, our data show that PAC-mediated AKI protection substantially depends on the availability of cell-derived MV. However, since previous data showed improved AKI-protection by PACs after cell preconditioning with certain mediators (Ang-1 and -2, melatonin, BMP-5), mechanisms other than exclusively vesicle-dependent mechanisms must be involved in PAC-mediated AKI protection.
Renal Failure among Women of Reproductive Age in Burundi: Estimating the Prevalence and Associated Factors Using Population-Based Data
Background. Renal failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many resource-constrained settings. In developing countries, little has been known about the prevalence and predisposing factors of renal failure using population-based data. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and associated factors of renal failure among women of reproductive age in Burundi. Methods. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2016-2017 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Data on 17,269 women of reproductive age were included. The outcome variable was a renal failure as determined by the patient’s report. Percentage, chi-square test, and multivariable logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The results from the logistic regression model were presented as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was set at . Results. The overall prevalence of renal failure was 5.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 5.7%). Higher-aged women were more likely to have a renal failure when compared with women aged 15–19 years. Rural dwellers were 1.65 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women in the urban residence (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.20). Women who had secondary + education had a 39% reduction in the odds of renal failure when compared with women with no formal education (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.81). Health insurance coverage accounted for a 23% reduction in the odds of renal failure when compared with women who were not covered by health insurance (AOR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.93). Women who had a terminated pregnancy were 1.50 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women with no history of terminated pregnancy (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.82). Furthermore, women with a history of contraceptive use were 1.32 times as likely to have a renal failure when compared with women without a history of contraceptive use (AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.57). Conclusion. Lack of formal education, having no health insurance coverage, and ever used anything or tried to delay or avoid getting pregnant were the modifiable risk factors of renal failure. The nonmodifiable risk factors were old age, rural residence, certain geographical regions, and having a history of pregnancy termination. Understanding the risk factors of renal failure will help to instigate early screening, detection, and prompt treatment initiation. In addition, early detection of the risk factors can help to reduce the adverse health impact including maternal death.
Cardiovascular Risk Factor Profiles and Disease in Black Compared to Other Africans with Chronic Kidney Disease
Background and Objectives. The extent to which chronic kidney disease (CKD) impacts cardiovascular disease (CVD) in black Africans is uncertain. We compared cardiovascular risk factors and CVD between black and other African CKD patients. Methods. Cardiovascular risk factors, aortic and cardiac function, atherosclerosis extent, and cardiovascular event rates were assessed in 115 consecutive predialysis (n = 67) and dialysis patients (n = 48) including 46 black and 69 other (32 Asian, 28 white, and 9 mixed race) participants. Data were analysed in multivariable regression models. Results. Overall, black compared to other African CKD patients had less frequent carotid artery plaque (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.16–0.91)) despite an increased cardiovascular risk factor burden. In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the Framingham score performed well in identifying non-black but not black CKD patients with carotid plaque (area under the curve (AUC) (95% CI) = 0.818 (0.714–0.921) and AUC (95% CI) = 0.556 (0.375–0.921), respectively). Black compared to other African predialysis patients experienced larger Framingham scores and more adverse nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, impaired arterial and diastolic function but similar cardiovascular event rates (OR (95% CI) = 0.93 (0.22 to 3.87)). Among dialysis patients, black compared to other Africans had an overall similar traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factor burden, similar arterial and diastolic function but increased systolic function (partial R = 0.356, = 0.01 and partial R = 0.315, = 0.03 for ejection fraction and stroke volume, respectively) and reduced cardiovascular event rates (OR (95% CI) = 0.22 (0.05 to 0.88)). Conclusion. Black compared to other African CKD patients have less frequent very high risk atherosclerosis and experience weaker cardiovascular risk factor-atherosclerotic CVD relationships. These disparities may be due to differences in epidemiological health transition stages. Among dialysis patients, black compared to other Africans have less cardiovascular events, which may represent a selection bias as previously documented in black Americans.