Article of the Year 2022
Comparison of Outcomes among Chronic Kidney Disease V Patients with COVID-19 at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute: A Retrospective Cohort StudyRead the full article
International Journal of Nephrology publishes original research articles and review articles on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders.
Chief Editor, Professor Mattoo, is a renowned Pediatric Nephrologist from the Wayne State University School of Medicine, a Professor of Pediatrics (Nephrology), Urology & Vice Chair of the Department of Pediatrics. He has received research grants & published 200 works including book chapters
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The Impact of Hot Ambient Temperature and Prolonged Fasting Duration during Ramadan on Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Literature Review
The Islamic (lunar) calendar has 11 fewer days each year than the Gregorian (solar) calendar. Consequently, ambient temperatures during the month of Ramadan and the duration of the presunrise-to-sunset fast will change each year. At some point, individuals observing Ramadan will experience prolonged periods of fasting during the hot summer months. In this manuscript, findings published in the English-language medical literature that address the impact of prolonged fasting during the warmer summer months on patients with chronic kidney disease, including dialysis and transplantation patients, are reviewed. This is of particular concern given the accelerated pace of global warming. The limitations of the evidence that is currently available are also discussed, and an approach that might be used to standardize future evaluations of the impact of fasting on kidney health is suggested.
Correlation of the Dietary Protein Intake between Those Estimated from a Short Protein Food-Recall Questionnaire and from 24-Hour Urinary Urea-Nitrogen Excretion in Stages 3-4 Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Introduction. High protein intake may accelerate progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Estimation of dietary protein intake (DPI) is indispensable for management of CKD, but to achieve optimum DPI is quite challenging in routine clinical practice. We recently studied a beneficial effect of utilizing integrated care on the management of CKD at the rural community level. In that study, we created a short protein food-recall questionnaire (S-PFRQ) as a working tool to estimate DPI of the CKD patients during home visit by community health personnel. Herein, we reported the initial evaluation of the reliability of S-PFRQ from our previous study. Objective. We compared the amount of DPI obtained from S-PFRQ with that obtained from protein-equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA). Methods. In the previous ESCORT-2 study, 914 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4, who were living in the rural area of Thailand, were prospectively followed while receiving integrated care for 36 consecutive months. During home visits by community nurses from subdistrict health centers, dietary food recall was made, recorded in S-PFRQ, and DPI was obtained. Among these, sixty patients were randomly selected, and 24-h urine was collected for urinary urea-N and estimation of PNA. A correlation was made between DPI obtained from S-PFRQ and PNA. Results. The DPIs derived from S-PFRQ and PNA were 28.8 ± 14.8 and 39.26 ± 17.79 g/day, respectively. The mean difference and 95% CI between the 2 methods was −10.43 (−7.1 to −13.8) g/day, respectively ( < 0.001). Interclass correlation between these 2 methods was 0.24, = 0.007. The difference between the 2 methods remained constant across different amounts of DPI. Conclusion. The DPI estimated from S-PFRQ significantly correlated to that from PNA. However, the S-PFRQ method yielded a DPI value which was about 10 g of protein or 25% less than the PNA method. Despite this amount of difference, this S-PFRQ is user-friendly and could be used during field work as an easy and simple tool for DPI estimation in resource-limiting condition.
Findings of Cardiovascular Workup of Kidney Transplant Candidates: A Retrospective Study of a Single-Center in Saudi Arabia
Background. There are limited data about the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the findings of CV workup among kidney transplant (KTx) recipients (KTRs) in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A single-center retrospective study of KTRs who underwent KTx from 2017 to 2020 was performed. We reviewed the prevalence of CV risk factors and the results of the pre-KTx CV workup which was derived from the American Heart Association guidelines. Results. We included 254 KTRs. The mean age was 43.1 ± 15.9 years, and 55.5% were men and 79.5% were living-donor KTRs. Pre-emptive KTx was 9.8%, peritoneal dialysis was 11.8%, and hemodialysis was 78.3% (arteriovenous fistula: 33.1% versus hemodialysis catheter: 66.9%). The mean dialysis vintage was 4.8 ± 3.3 years for deceased-donor KTRs versus 2.4 ± 2.6 years for living-donor KTRs. CV risk factors were hypertension: 76%, diabetes: 40.6% (type 1 : 25.2% versus type 2 : 74.7%), hyperlipidemia (low-density lipoprotein >2.6 mmol/L): 40.2%, coronary artery disease (CAD): 12.6%, smoking: 9.1%, peripheral vascular disease: 2.8%, and cerebral vascular disease: 2.4%. The prevalence of obesity stage 1 was 19.7% and obesity stage 2 was 4%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 38.5%. The ejection fraction was abnormal (<55%) in 22%. Abnormal wall motion was present in 34 patients (13.4%). A cardiac (PET-CT) stress test was conducted on 129 patients (50.8%) which showed abnormal perfusion in 37 patients (28.7%). Out of those who required PET-CT, 18.6% had a coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) of more than 400, 41.8% had a CACS of zero, 29.4% had a CACS of 1–100, and 14.7% had a CACS of 100–400. Coronary angiogram was required in only 41 patients (16.1%), 12 (29.3%) required coronary interventions, 25 (61%) were treated medically, and 4 (9.8%) did not have any CAD. CT scans of pelvic arteries were performed in 118 patients (46.5%). It showed moderate or severe calcifications in only 7 patients (5.9%), whereas it was normal in 97 patients (82.2%), or it showed only mild calcifications in 14 patients (11.9%). Conclusion. This study outlines the prevalence of CV risk factors and the findings of the pretransplant CV workup among KTx candidates who underwent KTx. Multicenter national studies will be helpful to validate the generalizability of these findings.
Zinc Acetate Hydrate Supplementation versus Polaprezinc Supplementation for Improving Hypozincemia in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Zinc supplementation may ameliorate zinc deficiency in maintenance hemodialysis patients; however, no standard protocol has been established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of zinc acetate hydrate (ZAH) and polaprezinc (PPZ) as zinc supplements in hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 75 hemodialysis patients with serum zinc levels <60 μg/dL for this study and randomly assigned Zinc supplementation to these 75 patients: 37 received ZAH (50 mg/day), and 38 received PPZ (34 mg/day). Serum zinc levels of both groups were compared every 4 weeks for 1 year. In both groups, serum zinc levels significantly increased at 4–52 weeks. Serum zinc levels were significantly higher in the ZAH group at 4–12 weeks; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups at 16–52 weeks. Adverse events requiring a reduction in the zinc dose, including copper deficiency, occurred significantly more frequently in the ZAH group. In conclusion, PPZ can safely maintain serum zinc levels for 1 year. ZAH provides rapid zinc supplementation but can cause adverse events.
Immunophenotypic Characterization of Citrate-Containing A Concentrates in Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Pre-Post Study
Introduction. Due to chronic inflammation, maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients continue to show excess mortality. Acetate-free citrate-buffered A concentrates could be a way to improve the biocompatibility of the procedure, reduce chronic inflammation, and thus in the long term improve the prognosis of patients. Methods. Using a pre-post design (3 months of acetate followed by 3 months of citrate-acidified A concentrates in standard bicarbonate-based dialysate hemodialysis, CiaHD) and linear mixed model analysis in 61 stable HD patients, we assessed the impact of CiaHD on counts and phenotypes of peripheral T cells and monocytes by flow cytometry. Results. Switching to CiaHD left C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and leucocyte counts unaffected. However, CiaHD increased lymphocyte counts ex vivo. Furthermore, we found a decrease in total CD3+CD4+CD69+ ((109/L), mean ± SD: acetate, 0.04 ± 1.0 versus citrate, 0.02 ± 0.01; = 0.02) activated cells, while the number of CD28+ T cells remained stable. No differences were noted regarding T-cell exhaustion marker expression, CD14+CD16+ monocyte counts, and PMN-MDSCs. Conclusion. Compared with acetate, CiaHD has a minor impact on lymphocyte counts and CD4+T-cell activation, which was independent of systemic CRP and ionized magnesium, calcium levels, and other dialysis prescription modalities.
Effects of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Protein Metabolism and Inflammation in Iraqi Hemodialysis Patients: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. The effect of correcting metabolic acidosis on protein metabolism in hemodialysis patients is controversial. Objectives. To study the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate on protein metabolism and markers of inflammation in acidotic hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods. An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted at a single center. Sixty-six clinically stable adult hemodialysis patients were recruited with an average predialysis serum bicarbonate level of <22 mmol/l and a dialysate bicarbonate concentration of 35 mmol/l. Forty-nine participants have completed the study. Oral sodium bicarbonate tablets of 500 mg were given daily in the intervention group (n = 25) for 12 weeks versus the standard of care in the control group (n = 24). Outcomes compared intervention versus nonintervention in both groups at equivalent time points (0 and 3 months). The clinical data, anthropometry, dialysis adequacy, albumin, normalized protein catabolism rate, blood gas analysis, and bicarbonate were recorded at 0 and 3 months. In addition, muscle mass and handgrip strength were measured. Finally, IL-6 as a marker of inflammation was measured at randomization and three months. Results. Serum bicarbonate and pH increased significantly from 17.57 ± 3.34 mmol/L to 20.69 ± 2.54 mmol/L and from 7.26 ± 0.06 to 7.34 ± 0.04, respectively (). Serum albumin was significantly higher in the intervention group at three months than in the control group, 4.11 ± 0.45 vs. 3.79 ± 0.47 ( value 0.011). Serum potassium significantly decreased in the intervention group at three months compared to the control group, 5.00 ± 0.43 mEq/l vs. 5.33 ± 0.63 mEq/l ( value 0.03). Muscle strength expressed as handgrip has improved significantly in the intervention group at three months compared to the control group, 45.01 ± 19.19 vs. 33.93 ± 15.06 ( value 0.03). The IL-6 values were less in the intervention group at 3 months with a value of 0.01. The interdialytic weight of the intervention group at three months was 2.42 ± 0.64 compared to the 2.20 ± 1.14 control group, but this did not reach statistical significance ( value of 0.4). The composite of (albumin + nPCR) at three months was achieved in 59.18% of the intervention group compared to 14.28% with a value of 0.01. Conclusions. Correcting metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis patients improved serum albumin and nPCR without hypokalemia or significant interdialytic weight gain. This was particularly evident in patients with minimal inflammation with low IL-6 values.