Effect of Prolonged-Release Pirfenidone on Renal Function in Septic Acute Kidney Injury Patients: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialRead the full article
International Journal of Nephrology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders.
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Cognition and Implementation of Disaster Preparedness among Japanese Dialysis Facilities
Introduction. Few quantitative studies have explored disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities worldwide. This study examined the levels of disaster preparedness and their related factors in dialysis facilities in Japan. Methods. We conducted a mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire for key persons responsible for disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities (N = 904) associated with the Japanese Association of Dialysis Physicians. Levels of disaster preparedness were evaluated by the implementation rates of four domains: (1) patient, (2) administration, (3) network, and (4) safety. Additionally, we focused on cognitive factors related to disaster preparedness, such as risk perception, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, self-responsibility, and support from the surroundings. Results. A total of 517 participants answered the survey (response rate: 57.2%). Implementation rates differed according to the domains of disaster preparedness. While the average implementation rate of the safety domain was 81.8%, each average implementation rate was 57.9%, 48.3%, and 38.4% for the administration, network, and patient domains, respectively. The study found that self-efficacy and support from the surroundings of the participants were significantly associated with the four domains of disaster preparedness. Alternatively, risk perception and support from surroundings were significantly associated with one particular domain each. Conclusion. Our results suggest that boosting self-efficacy and support from surroundings among key persons of disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities may contribute to the advancement of the different domains of disaster preparedness.
A New Method for the Measurement of International Normalized Ratio in Hemodialysis Patients with Heparin-Locked Tunneled Dialysis Catheters
Background. To measure International Normalized Ratio (INR) in hemodialysis patients with tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs), blood sampling is frequently obtained via the catheter at the start of the session. INR measurements via finger-prick point of care testing (POCT) and via blood sampling taken from the dialysis circuit are evaluated as alternatives. Methods. In 14 hemodialysis patients with TDCs, treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA), INR measurements via POCT were compared with plasma INR samples taken via the catheter at the start of dialysis and via the dialysis circuit after 30 and 60 minutes during 3 nonconsecutive dialysis sessions. Results. Blood samples taken at the start of dialysis at the catheter site were frequently contaminated with heparin originating from the locking solution (unfractionated heparin concentration (UFH) >1.0 IU/ml in 13.2%). POCT INR at the start of dialysis was not different from plasma INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test , n = 37, and , n = 36, respectively). Moreover, there was no difference between POCT INR at the start of dialysis and POCT INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test and p = 0.801, respectively; n = 36). Passing and Bablok regression equation was used, y = 0.460 + 0.733x; n = 105. Treatment decisions based on these 2 methods showed a very good overall agreement (kappa = 0.810; 95% CI: 0.732–0.889; n = 105). Conclusions. Measuring plasma INR via the TDC at the start of dialysis should be abandoned. Measuring POCT INR via a finger prick at the start or even after 30 to 60 minutes is an alternative. The most elegant alternative is to take plasma INR samples via the dialysis circuit 30 minutes or later after the start of the dialysis.
Long-Term Prognosis of Hyperferritinemia Induced by Intravenous Iron Therapy in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: A 10-Year, Single-Center Study
Optimal ferritin level in hemodialysis patients between Japan and other countries is controversial. Long-term side effects of iron supplementation in these patients remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate whether past hyperferritinemia in hemodialysis patients was associated with high risk of death and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVDs). This small retrospective cohort study included approximately 44 patients unintentionally supplemented with excessive intravenous iron. A significantly higher risk of CCVDs was observed in patients with initial serum ferritin levels ≥1000 ng/mL than in the remaining patients. High ferritin levels slowly decreased to <300 ng/mL in a median of 24.2 (10.5–46.5) months without treatment. However, compared with the remaining patients, only patients whose ferritin levels did not decrease to <300 ng/mL steadily had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio, 9.6). Long-term hyperferritinemia due to intravenous iron therapy is a risk factor for death in maintenance hemodialysis patients. For a prolonged better prognosis, intravenous iron should be carefully administered so as to avoid hyperferritinemia in patients with hemodialysis.
Renal Transplant Pathology: Demographic Features and Histopathological Analysis of the Causes of Graft Dysfunction
Background. Renal transplant has emerged as a preferred treatment modality in cases of end-stage renal disease; however, a small percentage of cases suffer from graft dysfunction. Aim. To evaluate the renal transplant biopsies and analyze the various causes of graft dysfunction. Materials and Methods. 163 renal transplant biopsies, reported between 2014 and 2019 and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were evaluated with respect to demographics, clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Results. Of 163 patients, 26 (16%) were females and 137 (84%) were males with a mean age of 34 ± 7 years. 53 (32.5%) cases were of rejection (ABMR and TCMR), 1 (0.6%) was borderline, 15 were of IFTA, and rest of 94 cases (57.7%) belonged to the others category. SCr (serum creatinine) in cases of rejection was 3.85 ± 0.55 mg/dl. Causes of early graft dysfunction included active ABMR (7.1 ± 4.7 months), acute TCMR (5.5 months), and acute tubular necrosis (after 6 ± 2.2 months of transplant) while the causes of late rejection were CNIT and IFTA (34 ± 4.7 and 35 ± 7.8 months, respectively). Conclusion. Renal graft dysfunction still remains a concerning area for both clinicians and patients. Biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing the exact cause of graft dysfunction and in planning further management.
Bidirectional Interaction of Thyroid-Kidney Organs in Disease States
Purpose. Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth, development, and physiology of the kidney. The kidney plays a key role in the metabolism, degradation, and excretion of thyroid hormones and its metabolites. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of disease states of thyroid-kidney organs and detecting the correlation between thyroid and kidney function abnormalities. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, a total of forty-five patients with thyroid and kidney dysfunction were investigated. Clinical features, laboratory data at initial presentation, management, and outcomes were collected. The paper has been written based on searching PubMed and Google Scholar to identify potentially relevant articles or abstracts. Median, percentage, mean ± standard deviation (SD), and the two-tailed t-test were used for statistical analyses. The correlation between variables was assessed by Pearson’s, Spearman’s correlation tests and regression analyses. Results. The mean ± SD of age of study patients was 48.2 ± 22.93 years (ranging from 1 to 90 years). There was no correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. No association between antimicrosomal antibodies with estimated glomerular filtration rate was seen. Cardiovascular disease was the most common complication of overt hypothyroidism in kidney dysfunction patients. Conclusion. The present study showed more prevalence of primary hypothyroidism in comparison with other thyroid dysfunctions in patients with kidney dysfunction. Reduced mean values of thyroid function profiles after treatment suggest that this thyroid disease should be considered and ameliorated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with kidney disease.
A Comparison of Urine Dilution Ability between Adult Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, Other Chronic Kidney Diseases, and Healthy Control Subjects: A Case-Control Study
The final dilution of urine is regulated via aquaporin-2 water channels in the distal part of the nephron. It is unclear whether urine dilution ability in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD patients) differs from other patients with similar degree of impaired renal function (non-ADPKD patients). The purpose of this case control study was to measure urine dilution ability in ADPKD patients compared to non-ADPKD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Eighteen ADPKD, 16 non-ADPKD patients (both with chronic kidney disease, stage I-IV), and 18 healthy controls received an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. Urine was collected in 7 consecutive periods. We measured free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolality, urine output, fractional excretion of sodium, urine aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), and urine epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaC). Blood samples were drawn four times (at baseline, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 hours after the water load) for analyses of plasma osmolality, vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. Brachial and central blood pressure was measured regularly during the test. Results. The three groups were age and gender matched, and the patient groups had similar renal function. One hour after water load, the ADPKD patients had an increased CH2O compared to non-ADPKD patients (2.97 ± 2.42 ml/min in ADPKD patients vs. 1.31 ± 1.50 ml/min in non-ADPKD patients, ). The reduction in u-AQP2 and u-ENaC occurred earlier in ADPKD than in non-ADPKD patients. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone and blood pressure measurements did not show any differences that could explain the deviation in urine dilution capacity between the patient groups. Conclusions. ADPKD patients had a higher CH2O than non-ADPKD patients after an oral water load, and u-AQP2 and u-ENaC were more rapidly reduced than in non-ADPKD patients. Thus, urine-diluting capacity may be better preserved in ADPKD patients than in non-ADPKD patients.