Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Rosuvastatin on Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Contrast Media in RatsRead the full article
International Journal of Nephrology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders.
International Journal of Nephrology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Prevalence of Hypothyroidism among Dialysis Patients in Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction. The kidney affects the thyroid gland causing various derangements in its function whenever the kidney is impaired, even with a minor imperfection in its job, and this makes dialysis patients more prone to thyroid disorders with subsequent increase in mortality and morbidity. This study aims to assess the prevalence of thyroid disease (hypo- and hyperthyroidism) among dialysis patients and their associated factors. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the dialysis unit of An-Najah National University Hospital. 209 dialysis patients (60% were male, 57.6 ± 14.5 years, mean age) meeting our inclusion criteria were tested for thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in addition to routine laboratory tests. Findings. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was assessed as 16.3% (95% CI = 11.29% to 21.3%), overt hypothyroidism was 9.1%, and subclinical hypothyroidism was 7.2%. Subclinical hyperthyroidism prevalence was 1%, and no overt hyperthyroidism cases were reported. We observed no significant association between thyroid state and age, gender, duration of dialysis, or weight. Discussion. Hypothyroidism (both subclinical and overt type) is commonly seen in dialysis patients, and its symptoms are ordinary complains even in euthyroid dialysis patients, and this warrants screening programs and more studies on the efficacy of thyroid hormone supplements.
Autophagy and mTOR Pathways Mediate the Potential Renoprotective Effects of Vitamin D on Diabetic Nephropathy
Introduction. Not only is diabetic nephropathy (DN) the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, but it also increases the risk of mortality up to fourteen times compared to normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Aim. The aim of the current study was the evaluation of the renoprotective effects of vitamin D in DN and the possible interplay between autophagy and mTOR pathways. Materials and Methods. Fifty male Wistar albino rats were divided (10/group) into control, DN group, insulin-treated DN group, vitamin D-treated DN group, and combined insulin and vitamin D-treated DN group. Assessments of systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, serum glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, and rat kidney gene expression of mTOR were performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of autophagy marker LC3 in rat kidneys were also performed. Results. DN was associated with significant increases in SBP, urinary albumin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and mTOR gene expression (). However, there was significant decrease in creatinine clearance, serum insulin, GSH, and H score value of LC3 when compared with control group (). The combination of insulin and vitamin D treatment significantly restored DN changes when compared with the other treated groups, except in oxidative stress markers where there was an insignificant difference between the combination-treated and insulin-treated groups (). Conclusion. It has been concluded that vitamin D is a potent adjuvant therapy in treatment of DN via downregulation of mTOR gene expression, stimulation of autophagy, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive effects.
Spectrum and Clinical Characteristics of Renal Diseases in Ghanaian Adults: A 13-Year Retrospective Study
Background. Renal diseases over the years have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we assessed the spectrum and clinical characteristics of Ghanaians with renal diseases at the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi. Methods. This was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from the years 2005 to 2017. A non-randomized sampling approach was used to include 1426 participants who were diagnosed with AKI, CKD, ESRD, and nephrotic syndrome at the nephrology unit of KATH during the years under review. All the 1426 patients were eligible for the study. Demographic characteristics as well as clinical data such as the kind of renal disease presentation, causes of the renal disease, and the treatment options were also obtained from their records. Results. Overall, 1009 of the total participants had CKD (70.76%), 295 participants had ESRD (20.69%), 72 participants had AKI (5.05%), and 50 participants had nephrotic syndrome (3.51%). Furthermore, 69 (23.4%) participants with ESRD were on dialysis whiles 6 (8.3) and 17 (1.7) participants with only AKI and CKD superimposed AKI, respectively, were on dialysis. 226 (76.6%) participants with ESRD were on conservative therapy. Hypertension emerged as the major cause of renal disease presentation (53.93%) with bilateral leg edema (13.46%) being the major complaint. There was a significant association between CKD and age (). Nephrotic syndrome also showed a significant association with age (). Conclusion. This study revealed that patients at the nephrology unit of KATH, Ghana, are mainly adults between ages 46–55. The clinical pattern of renal diseases is dominated by CKD and ESRD. We conclude that hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and sepsis are the most common causes of renal diseases. The commonest clinical presentations are bilateral leg edema, palpitations, headache, breathlessness, dizziness, and vomiting. Early diagnosis and management of these conditions may prevent or delay the progress to end-stage renal disease.
Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) Augmented Total Antioxidant Capacity and Reduced C-Reactive Protein among Haemodialysis Patients in Phase II Trial
Background. Oxidative processes might increase in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) according to the current literature. Oxidative stress (OS) is a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications, which are major causes of mortality among ESRD patients. Haemodialysis (HD) is life-saving procedure, nevertheless it is an active chronic inflammatory status that could augment cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. Gum Arabic (GA) has been claimed to act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in experimental studies and clinical trials. Therefore, we assumed GA supplementation among haemodialysis patients would reduce oxidative stress and consequently reduce the state of chronic inflammatory activation associated with haemodialysis. Methods. Forty end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients aged 18–80 years who were on regular haemodialysis in Arif Renal Center, Omdurman, Sudan, were recruited. All recruited patients met the inclusion criteria and signed informed consent prior to enrolment. The patients received 30 g/day of GA for 12 weeks. C-reactive protein (CRP) and complete blood count (CBC) were measured as baseline and monthly. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured before and after GA intake. Ethical approval from the National Medicines and Poisons Board was obtained. Results. Gum Arabic significantly augmented total antioxidant capacity level () (95% CI, 0.408–0.625) and also attenuated oxidative marker MDA and C-reactive protein (). Conclusions. GA has revealed potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in haemodialysis patients. Oral digestion of GA (30 g/day) decreased oxidative stress and inflammatory markers among haemodialysis patients. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03214692, registered 11 July 2017 (prospective registration).
N-terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Malnutrition in Patients on Hemodialysis
Natriuretic peptides, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are mainly known as diagnostic markers for heart failure with high diagnostic and prognostic values in the general population. In patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD), changes in NT-proBNP can be related to noncardiac problems such as fluid overload, inflammation, or malnutrition and can also be influenced by the dialysis characteristics. The current review aimed to summarize findings from studies on the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition in HD patients. Articles published after 2009 and over a ten-year period were considered for inclusion. We first briefly discuss the traditional functions of NT-proBNP, and after, we describe the functions of this prohormone by focusing on its relation with protein energy wasting (PEW) in HD patients. Mechanisms that could explain these relationships were also discussed. Overall, 7 studies in which the investigation of the relations between NT-proBNP and nutritional status in HD patients were among the main objects were taken into account. NT-proBNP levels correlated with several factors described in the 4 categories of markers indicative of PEW (body mass and composition, muscle mass, biochemical criteria, and dietary intakes) and/or were associated with PEW. Interactions between several parameters could be involved in the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition with a strong role of weight status. NT-proBNP is elevated in HD patients and is associated with malnutrition. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of NT-proBNP on nutritional status should be evaluated.
PPARγ and Its Agonists in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global healthcare issue. CKD can progress to irreversible end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) or renal failure. The major risk factors for CKD include obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the key process involved in the disease development may lead to novel interventive strategies, which is currently lagging behind. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is one of the ligand-activated transcription factor superfamily members and is globally expressed in human tissues. Its agonists such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been applied as effective antidiabetic drugs as they control insulin sensitivity in multiple metabolic tissues. Besides, TZDs exert protective effects in multiple other CKD risk disease contexts. As PPARγ is abundantly expressed in major kidney cells, its physiological roles in those cells have been studied in both cell and animal models. The function of PPARγ in the kidney ranges from energy metabolism, cell proliferation to inflammatory suppression, although major renal side effects of existing agonists (including TZDs) have been reported, which limited their application in treating CKD. In the current review, we systemically assess the function of PPARγ in CKDs and the benefits and current limitations of its agonists in the clinical applications.