Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 293938, 10 pages
Research Article

Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes

1University of Minnesota, USA
2University of Colorado, USA

Received 22 November 2010; Accepted 9 January 2011

Academic Editor: Alejandro Martín-Malo

Copyright © 2011 Mohammad Sarraf and Robert W. Schrier. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Impaired cardiac function leads to activation of the neurohumoral axis, sodium and water retention, congestion and ultimately impaired kidney function. This sequence of events has been termed the Cardiorenal Syndrome. This is different from the increase in cardiovascular complications which occur with primary kidney disease, that is, the so-called Renocardiac Syndrome. The present review discusses the pathogenesis of the Cardiorenal Syndrome followed by the benefits and potential deleterious effects of pharmacological agents that have been used in this setting. The agents discussed are diuretics, aquaretics, natriuretic peptides, vasodilators, inotropes and adenosine α1 receptor antagonists. The potential role of ultrafiltration is also briefly discussed.