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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 351291, 11 pages
Review Article

Heart-Kidney Interaction: Epidemiology of Cardiorenal Syndromes

1Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, San Bortolo Hospital, Viale Rodolfi 37, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
2Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Alberta Hospital, 3C1.12 Walter C. Mackenzie Centre, 8440-122 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2B7

Received 27 August 2010; Accepted 26 November 2010

Academic Editor: Mitchell H. Rosner

Copyright © 2011 Dinna N. Cruz and Sean M. Bagshaw. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cardiac and kidney diseases are common, increasingly encountered, and often coexist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history, and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality, and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid in the design of clinical studies. This paper will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardiorenal syndrome and its subtypes.