Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011, Article ID 351672, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/351672
Review Article

Improving Prognosis Estimation in Patients with Heart Failure and the Cardiorenal Syndrome

1Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4
2Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, University of Toronto, G-106, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5
3University Health Network and Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Received 22 September 2010; Accepted 17 February 2011

Academic Editor: Mitchell H. Rosner

Copyright © 2011 Husam M. Abdel-Qadir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. L. Smith, J. H. Lichtman, M. B. Bracken et al., “Renal impairment and outcomes in heart failure. systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1987–1996, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. T. E. Owan, D. O. Hodge, R. M. Herges, S. J. Jacobsen, V. L. Roger, and M. M. Redfield, “Secular trends in renal dysfunction and outcomes in hospitalized heart failure patients,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 257–262, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. H. L. Hillege, D. Nitsch, M. A. Pfeffer et al., “Renal function as a predictor of outcome in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 671–678, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. D. J. Smilde, H. L. Hillege, G. Navis, F. Boomsma, D. De Zeeuw, and D. J. Van Veldhuisen, “Impaired renal function in patients with ischemic and nonischemic chronic heart failure: association with neurohormonal activation and survival,” American Heart Journal, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 165–172, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Ronco, P. McCullough, S. D. Anker et al., “Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 703–711, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. D. J. Smilde, D. J. Van Veldhuisen, G. Navis, A. A. Voors, and H. L. Hillege, “Drawbacks and prognostic value of formulas estimating renal function in patients with chronic heart failure and systolic dysfunction,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 15, pp. 1572–1580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. G. L. Smith, M. G. Shlipak, E. P. Havranek et al., “Serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimators of renal function: mortality in older patients with cardiovascular disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 10, pp. 1134–1142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. Q. L. Zhang, H. Brenner, W. Koenig, and D. Rothenbacher, “Prognostic value of chronic kidney disease in patients with coronary heart disease: role of estimating equations,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 342–347, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Manzano-Fernández, M. Boronat-Garcia, M. D. Albaladejo-Otón et al., “Complementary prognostic value of cystatin C, N-terminal Pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin T in patients with acute heart failure,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 1753–1759, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. White, A. Akbari, N. Hussain et al., “Estimating glomerular filtration rate in kidney transplantation: a comparison between serum creatinine and cystatin C-based methods,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 3763–3770, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. A. Stevens, J. Coresh, T. Greene, and A. S. Levey, “Assessing kidney function-measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 23, pp. 2473–2483, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. B. A. Perkins, R. G. Nelson, B. E.P. Ostrander et al., “Detection of renal function decline in patients with diabetes and normal or elevated GFR by serial measurements of serum cystatin C concentration: results of a 4-year follow-up study,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1404–1412, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. P. E. Lassus, M. S. Nieminen, K. Peuhkurinen et al., “Markers of renal function and acute kidney injury in acute heart failure: definitions and impact on outcomes of the cardiorenal syndrome,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 2791–2798, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. F. Roos, J. Doust, S. E. Tett, and C. M. J. Kirkpatrick, “Diagnostic accuracy of cystatin C compared to serum creatinine for the estimation of renal dysfunction in adults and children-A meta-analysis,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 5-6, pp. 383–391, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. E. Forman, J. Butler, Y. Wang et al., “Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. H. M. Krumholz, Y. T. Chen, V. Vaccarino et al., “Correlates and impact on outcomes of worsening renal function in patients ≥65 years of age with heart failure,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 1110–1113, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. R. Cowie, M. Komajda, T. Murray-Thomas, J. Underwood, and B. Ticho, “Prevalence and impact of worsening renal function in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure: results of the prospective outcomes study in heart failure (POSH),” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1216–1222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. H. M. Abdel-Qadir, J. V. Tu, L. Yun, P. C. Austin, G. E. Newton, and D. S. Lee, “Diuretic dose and long-term outcomes in elderly patients with heart failure after hospitalization,” American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 264–271, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Ahmed, J. B. Young, T. E. Love, R. Levesque, and B. Pitt, “A propensity-matched study of the effects of chronic diuretic therapy on mortality and hospitalization in older adults with heart failure,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 246–253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Domanski, J. Norman, B. Pitt, M. Haigney, S. Hanlon, and E. Peyster, “Diuretic use, progressive heart failure, and death in patients in the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 705–708, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Eshaghian, T. B. Horwich, and G. C. Fonarow, “Relation of loop diuretic dose to mortality in advanced heart failure,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 97, no. 12, pp. 1759–1764, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. V. Hasselblad, S. W. Gattis, M. R. Shah et al., “Relation between dose of loop diuretics and outcomes in a heart failure population: Results of the ESCAPE Trial,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1064–1069, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. K. Berger, S. Duval, and C. Manske, “Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease,” American Heart Journal, vol. 153, pp. 1064–1073, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Ahmed, R. M. Centor, M. T. Weaver, and G. J. Perry, “A propensity score analysis of the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on long-term survival of older adults with heart failure and perceived contraindications,” American Heart Journal, vol. 149, no. 4, pp. 737–743, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. B. M. Massie, P. W. Armstrong, J. G.F. Cleland et al., “Toleration of high doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure: esults from the ATLAS trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 165–171, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  26. G. L. Bakris and M. R. Weir, “Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated elevations in serum creatinine: Is this a cause for concern?” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 685–693, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Damman, G. Navis, A. A. Voors et al., “Worsening renal function and prognosis in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 599–608, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Orea-Tejeda, E. Colín-Ramírez, T. Hernández-Gilsoul et al., “Microalbuminuria in systolic and diastolic chronic heart failure patients,” Cardiology Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 143–149, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  29. W. D. Comper, L. M. Hilliard, D. J. Nikolic-Paterson, and L. M. Russo, “Disease-dependent mechanisms of albuminuria,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. F1589–F1600, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. S. Levey, J. Coresh, E. Balk et al., “National kidney foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. Eknoyan, T. Hostetter, G. L. Bakris et al., “Proteinuria and other markers of chronic kidney disease: a position statement of the national kidney foundation (NKF) and the national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases (NIDDK),” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 617–622, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. R. T. Gansevoort and P. E. De Jong, “The case for using albuminuria in staging chronic kidney disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 465–468, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. P. Ruggenenti, A. Perna, L. Mosconi, R. Pisoni, and G. Remuzzi, “Urinary protein excretion rate is the best independent predictor of ESRF in non-diabetic proteinuric chronic nephropathies,” Kidney International, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1209–1216, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Iseki, K. Kinjo, C. Iseki, and S. Takishita, “Relationship between predicted creatinine clearance and proteinuria and the risk of developing ESRD in Okinawa, Japan,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 806–814, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. I. S. Anand, K. Bishu, T. S. Rector, A. Ishani, M. A. Kuskowski, and J. N. Cohn, “Proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, and the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with moderate to severe heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 1577–1584, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. E. Jackson, S. D. Solomon, H. C. Gerstein et al., “Albuminuria in chronic heart failure: prevalence and prognostic importance,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9689, pp. 543–550, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Masson, R. Latini, V. Milani et al., “Prevalence and prognostic value of elevated urinary albumin excretion in patients with chronic heart failure data from the GISSI-Heart failure trial,” Circulation: Heart Failure, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Ärnlöv, J. C. Evans, J. B. Meigs et al., “Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the framingham heart study,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 969–975, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. D. G. Warnock, P. Muntner, P. A. McCullough et al., “Kidney function, albuminuria, and all-cause mortality in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 861–871, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. H. C. Gerstein, J. F. E. Mann, Q. Yi et al., “Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 4, pp. 421–426, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Wachtell, H. Ibsen, M. H. Olsen et al., “Albuminuria and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the life study,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 901–906, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Tonelli, P. Jose, G. Curhan, F. Sacks, E. Braunwald, and M. Pfeffer, “Proteinuria, impaired kidney function, and adverse outcomes in people with coronary disease: analysis of a previously conducted randomised trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7555, pp. 1426–1429, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. De Zeeuw, G. Remuzzi, H. H. Parving et al., “Albuminuria, a therapeutic target for cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 8, pp. 921–927, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. De Zeeuw, G. Remuzzi, H. H. Parving et al., “Proteinuria, a target for renoprotection in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: lessons from RENAAL,” Kidney International, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 2309–2320, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. K. Damman, H. L. Hillege, and D. J. van Veldhuisen, “Albuminuria in heart failure: a CHARMing new risk factor?” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9689, pp. 506–508, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Al-Ahmad, W. M. Rand, G. Manjunath et al., “Reduced kidney function and anemia as risk factors for mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 955–962, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. I. Anand, J. J. V. McMurray, J. Whitmore et al., “Anemia and its relationship to clinical outcome in heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. I. S. Anand, M. A. Kuskowski, T. S. Rector et al., “Anemia and change in hemoglobin over time related to mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: results from Val-HeFT,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 1121–1127, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. F. Groenveld, J. L. Januzzi, K. Damman et al., “Anemia and mortality in heart failure patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 818–827, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. B. Horwich, G. C. Fonarow, M. A. Hamilton, W. R. MacLellan, and J. Borenstein, “Anemia is associated with worse symptoms, greater impairment in functional capacity and a significant increase in mortality in patients with advanced heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1780–1786, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. E. O'Meara, T. Clayton, M. B. McEntegart et al., “Clinical correlates and consequences of anemia in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure-results of the candesartan in heart failure: assessment of reduction in mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 986–994, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. M. Felker, L. K. Shaw, W. G. Stough, and C. M. O'Connor, “Anemia in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function,” American Heart Journal, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 457–462, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Komajda, S. D. Anker, A. Charlesworth et al., “The impact of new onset anaemia on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from COMET,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1440–1446, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. McClellan, S. L. Aronoff, W. K. Bolton et al., “The prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1501–1510, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. N. Basile, “Clinical considerations and practical recommendations for the primary care practitioner in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 1200–1207, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Nurko, “Anemia in chronic kidney disease: causes, diagnosis, treatment,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Opasich, M. Cazzola, L. Scelsi et al., “Blunted erythropoietin production and defective iron supply for erythropoiesis as major causes of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2232–2237, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Volpe, C. Tritto, U. Testa et al., “Blood levels of erythropoietin in congestive heart failure and correlation with clinical, hemodynamic, and hormonal profiles,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 468–473, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. S. Anand, T. Rector, and A. Deswal, “Relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and anemia in heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, supplement 1, p. 485, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  60. I. S. Anand, “Anemia and chronic heart failure. implications and treatment options,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 501–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. A. Pfeffer, E. A. Burdmann, C. Y. Chen et al., “A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 21, pp. 2019–2032, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. Kazory and E. A. Ross, “Anemia: the point of convergence or divergence for kidney disease and heart failure?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 639–647, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. F. Tehrani, P. Dhesi, D. Daneshvar et al., “Erythropoiesis stimulating agents in heart failure patients with anemia: a meta-analysis,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 511–518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. J. M. Testani, J. Chen, B. D. McCauley, S. E. Kimmel, and R. P. Shannon, “Potential effects of aggressive decongestion during the treatment of decompensated heart failure on renal function and survival,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 265–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. I. S. Anand, “Heart failure and anemia: mechanisms and pathophysiology,” Heart Failure Reviews, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 379–386, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. A. S. Androne, S. D. Katz, L. Lund et al., “Hemodilution is common in patients with advanced heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 226–229, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. G. Weiss and L. T. Goodnough, “Anemia of chronic disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 10, pp. 1011–1023, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Fyhrquist, K. Karppinen, T. Honkanen, O. Saijonmaa, and K. Rosenlof, “High serum erythropoietin levels are normalized during treatment of congestive heart failure with enalapril,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 226, no. 4, pp. 257–260, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. S. Go, J. Yang, L. M. Ackerson et al., “Hemoglobin level, chronic kidney disease, and the risks of death and hospitalization in adults with chronic heart failure-the anemia in chronic heart failure: outcomes and resource utilization (ANCHOR) study,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 23, pp. 2713–2723, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. S. Johnson, M. L. Thorp, X. Yang, O. L. Charansonney, and D. H. Smith, “Predicting renal replacement therapy and mortality in CKD,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 559–565, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. A. M. Walker, G. Schneider, J. Yeaw, B. Nordstrom, S. Robbins, and D. Pettitt, “Anemia as a predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with elevated serum creatinine,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 2293–2298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. W. F. Peacock IV, T. De Marco, G. C. Fonarow et al., “Cardiac troponin and outcome in acute heart failure,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 20, pp. 2117–2126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. D. Miani, C. Fresco, D. Lucci et al., “Clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of octogenarians with acute heart failure admitted to cardiology wards: results from the Italian Survey on Acute Heart Failure,” American Heart Journal, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 126–132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. J. You, P. C. Austin, D. A. Alter, D. T. Ko, and J. V. Tu, “Relation between cardiac troponin I and mortality in acute decompensated heart failure,” American Heart Journal, vol. 153, no. 4, pp. 462–470, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. P. Hudson, C. M. O'Connor, W. A. Gattis et al., “Implications of elevated cardiac troponin t in ambulatory patients with heart failure: a prospective analysis,” American Heart Journal, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 546–552, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. N. Parenti, S. Bartolacci, F. Carle, and F. Angelo, “Cardiac troponin I as prognostic marker in heart failure patients discharged from emergency department,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. N. A. Abbas, R. I. John, M. C. Webb et al., “Cardiac troponins and renal function in nondialysis patients with chronic kidney disease,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 2059–2066, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. N. A. Khan, B. R. Hemmelgarn, M. Tonelli, C. R. Thompson, and A. Levin, “Prognostic value of troponin T and I among asymptomatic patients with end-stage renal disease: a meta-analysis,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 20, pp. 3088–3096, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. D. S. Ooi and A. A. House, “Cardiac troponin T in hemodialyzed patients,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1410–1416, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  80. J. Dierkes, U. Domröse, S. Westphal et al., “Cardiac troponin T predicts mortality in patients end-stage renal disease,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 16, pp. 1964–1969, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  81. P. B. Deegan, M. E. Lafferty, A. Blumsohn, I. S. Henderson, and E. McGregor, “Prognostic value of troponin T in hemodialysis patients is independent of comorbidity,” Kidney International, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2399–2405, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. B. Conway, M. McLaughlin, P. Sharpe, and J. Harty, “Use of cardiac troponin T in diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac events in patients on chronic haemodialysis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2759–2764, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. F. S. Apple, M. M. Murakami, L. A. Pearce, and C. A. Herzog, “Predictive value of cardiac troponin I and T for subsequent death in end-stage renal disease,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 23, pp. 2941–2945, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. J. Ishii, M. Nomura, T. Okuma et al., “Risk stratification using serum concentrations of cardiac troponin T in patients with end-stage renal disease on chronic maintenance dialysis,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 312, no. 1-2, pp. 69–79, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. T. Tsutamoto, C. Kawahara, M. Yamaji et al., “Relationship between renal function and serum cardiac troponin T in patients with chronic heart failure,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 653–658, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. R. Sharma, D. C. Gaze, D. Pellerin et al., “Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in end stage renal disease patients with elevated cardiac troponin T,” Heart, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 804–809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. M. Goicoechea, S. G. De Vinuesa, F. Gómez-Campderá, and J. Luño, “Predictive cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD),” Kidney International, Supplement, vol. 67, no. 93, pp. S35–S38, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  88. M. Goicoechea, S. García De Vinuesa, F. Gómez-Campderá et al., “Clinical significance of cardiac troponin T levels in chronic kidney disease patients: predictive value for cardiovascular risk,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 846–853, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. A. Orea-Tejeda, L. R. Sánchez-González, L. Castillo-Martínez et al., “Prognostic value of cardiac troponin T elevation is independent of renal function and clinical findings in heart failure patients,” Cardiology Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  90. D. Wayand, H. Baum, G. Schatzle, J. Scharf, and D. Neumeier, “Cardiac troponin T and I in end-stage renal failure,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1345–1350, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  91. A. Maisel, C. Mueller, K. Adams et al., “State of the art: using natriuretic peptide levels in clinical practice,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 824–839, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. A. Y.-M. Wang and K. N. Lai, “Use of cardiac biomarkers in end-stage renal disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1643–1652, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. G. C. Fonarow, “The acute decompensated heart failure national registry (ADHERE): opportunities to improve care of patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure,” Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 4, supplement 7, pp. S21–S30, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  94. J. Hogenhuis, A. A. Voors, T. Jaarsma et al., “Anaemia and renal dysfunction are independently associated with BNP and NT-proBNP levels in patients with heart failure,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 787–794, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. P. A. McCullough and K. R. Sandberg, “B-type natriuretic peptide and renal disease,” Heart Failure Reviews, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 355–358, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. P. A. McCullough, P. Duc, T. Omland et al., “B-type natriuretic peptide and renal function in the diagnosis of heart failure: an analysis from the breathing not properly multinational study,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 571–579, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. J. A. Doust, E. Pietrzak, A. Dobson, and P. P. Glasziou, “How well does B-type natriuretic peptide predict death and cardiac events in patients with heart failure: systematic review,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7492, pp. 625–627, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  98. S. Neuhold, M. Huelsmann, G. Strunk et al., “Comparison of copeptin, B-type natriuretic peptide, and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. prediction of death at different stages of the disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 266–272, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. J. G. F. Cleland, J. Taylor, and M. Tendera, “Prognosis in heart failure with a normal ejection fraction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 8, pp. 829–830, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. A. S. Maisel, J. McCord, R. M. Nowak et al., “Bedside B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction: results from the breathing not properly multinational study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2010–2017, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. S. Niizuma, Y. Iwanaga, T. Yahata et al., “Impact of left ventricular end-diastolic wall stress on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in heart failure with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1347–1353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. C. Bruch, C. Fischer, J. Sindermann, J. Stypmann, G. Breithardt, and R. Gradaus, “Comparison of the prognostic usefulness of n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure with versus without chronic kidney disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 469–474, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. S. Anwaruddin, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, A. Baggish et al., “Renal function, congestive heart failure, and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide measurement: results from the ProBNP investigation of dyspnea in the emergency department (PRIDE) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 91–97, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. A. Bayes-Genis, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. R.J. Van Kimmenade et al., “Effect of body mass index on diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute dyspnea,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 400–407, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. L. Babuin, J. R. Alegria, J. K. Oh, R. A. Nishimura, and A. S. Jaffe, “Brain natriuretic peptide levels in constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1489–1491, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. F. S. Leya, D. Arab, D. Joyal et al., “The efficacy of brain natriuretic peptide levels in differentiating constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1900–1902, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. E. D. Siew, L. B. Ware, T. Gebretsadik et al., “Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin moderately predicts acute kidney injury in critically ill adults,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1823–1832, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. J. Mishra, Q. Ma, A. Prada et al., “Identification of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a novel early urinary biomarker for ischemic renal injury,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2534–2543, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. A. Yndestad, L. Landrø, T. Ueland et al., “Increased systemic and myocardial expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in clinical and experimental heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1229–1236, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. A. Aghel, K. Shrestha, W. Mullens, A. Borowski, and W. H. Tang, “Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in predicting worsening renal function in acute decompensated heart failure,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 16, pp. 49–54, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  111. D. Bolignano, G. Coppolino, A. Lacquaniti, and M. Buemi, “From kidney to cardiovascular diseases: NGAL as a biomarker beyond the confines of nephrology,” the European Society for Clinical Investigation, vol. 40, pp. 273–276, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  112. K. Damman, D. J. Van Veldhuisen, G. Navis et al., “Tubular damage in chronic systolic heart failure is associated with reduced survival independent of glomerular filtration rate,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 16, pp. 1297–1302, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. M. Alvelos, R. Pimentel, E. Pinho et al., “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in the diagnosirs of type 1 cardio-renal syndrome in the general ward,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 476–481, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  114. T. Jernberg, B. Lindahl, S. James, A. Larsson, L. O. Hansson, and L. Wallentin, “Cystatin C: a novel predictor of outcome in suspected or confirmed non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 16, pp. 2342–2348, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. M. G. Shlipak, R. Katz, L. F. Fried et al., “Cystatin-C and mortality in elderly persons with heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, pp. 268–271, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  116. M. G. Shlipak, M. J. Sarnak, R. Katz et al., “Cystatin C and the risk of death and cardiovascular events among elderly persons,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 20, pp. 2049–2060, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. J. H. Ix, M. G. Shlipak, G. M. Chertow, and M. A. Whooley, “Association of cystatin C with mortality, cardiovascular events, and incident heart failure among persons with coronary heart disease: data from the heart and soul study,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 173–179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. J. Lassus, V. P. Harjola, R. Sund et al., “Prognostic value of cystatin C in acute heart failure in relation to other markers of renal function and NT-proBNP,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 1841–1847, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. T. Keller, C. M. Messow, E. Lubos et al., “Cystatin C and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and normal or mildly reduced kidney function: results from the atheroGene study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 314–320, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. C.-K. Wu, J.-W. Lin, J. L. Caffrey, M.-H. Chang, J.-J. Hwang, and Y.-S. Lin, “Cystatin C and long-term mortality among subjects with normal creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rates: NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 23, pp. 1930–1936, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. S. Manzano-Fernández, M. Boronat-Garcia, M. D. Albaladejo-Otón et al., “Complementary prognostic value of cystatin C, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin T in patients with acute heart failure,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 1753–1759, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. B. Zethelius, L. Berglund, J. Sundström et al., “Use of multiple biomarkers to improve the prediction of death from cardiovascular causes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 20, pp. 2107–2116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. O. Melander, C. Newton-Cheh, P. Almgren et al., “Novel and conventional biomarkers for prediction of incident cardiovascular events in the community,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. R. B. Schnabel, A. Schulz, C. M. Messow et al., “Multiple marker approach to risk stratification in patients with stable coronary artery disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3024–3031, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  125. J. G. Smith, C. Newton-Cheh, P. Almgren et al., “Assessment of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and multiple biomarkers for the prediction of incident heart failure and atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 21, pp. 1712–1719, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. S. M. Dunlay, Y. Gerber, S. A. Weston, J. M. Killian, M. M. Redfield, and V. L. Roger, “Prognostic value of biomarkers in heart failure application of novel methods in the community,” Circulation: Heart Failure, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 393–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. F. S. Apple, M. A.M. Murakami, L. A. Pearce, and C. A. Herzog, “Multi-biomarker risk stratification of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiac troponin T and I in end-stage renal disease for all-cause death,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2279–2285, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. D. S. Lee and J. V. Tu, “Are multiple biomarker testing strategies ready for prime time in heart failure?” Circulation: Heart Failure, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 387–388, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. G. Simonneau, I. M. Robbins, M. Beghetti et al., “Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, supplement 1, pp. S43–S54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. M. Yigla, F. Nakhoul, A. Sabag et al., “Pulmonary hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease,” Chest, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1577–1582, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. J. J. Sim, S. A. Rasgon, D. A. Kujubu et al., “Sleep apnea in early and advanced chronic kidney disease,” Chest, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 710–716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. J. J. Sim, S. A. Rasgon, and S. F. Derose, “Sleep apnea and hypertension: prevalence in chronic kidney disease,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 837–841, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  133. M. Yigla, O. Fruchter, D. Aharonson et al., “Pulmonary hypertension is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients,” Kidney International, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 969–975, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. R. J. Harp, S. W. Stavropoulos, A. G. Wasserstein, and T. W. I. Clark, “Pulmonary hypertension among end-stage renal failure patients following hemodialysis access thrombectomy,” CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  135. Y. Havlucu, S. Kursat, C. Ekmekci et al., “Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure,” Respiration, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 503–510, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. F. Nakhoul, M. Yigla, R. Gilman, S. A. Reisner, and Z. Abassi, “The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in haemodialysis patients via arterio-venous access,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1686–1692, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. S. T. Morris and A. G. Jardine, “The vascular endothelium in chronic renal failure,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 96–105, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  138. J. Thambyrajah, M. J. Landray, F. J. McGlynn, H. J. Jones, D. C. Wheeler, and J. N. Townend, “Abnormalities of endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure,” Heart, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 205–209, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  139. N. D. Vaziri, “Effect of chronic renal failure on nitric oxide metabolism,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 38, no. 4, supplement 1, pp. S74–S79, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  140. M. R. Clarkson, L. Giblin, A. Brown, D. Little, and J. Donohoe, “Reversal of pulmonary hypertension after ligation of a brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 40, no. 3, p. E8, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  141. M. Yigla, Z. Abassi, S. A. Reisner, and F. Nakhoul, “Pulmonary hypertension in hemodialysis patients: an unrecognized threat,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 353–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. M. Barak and Y. Katz, “Microbubbles: pathophysiology and clinical implications,” Chest, vol. 128, pp. 2918–2932, 2005. View at Google Scholar