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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 412495, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/412495
Research Article

Acute Childhood Cardiorenal Syndrome and Impact of Cardiovascular Morbidity on Survival

Paediatric Nephrology and Hypertension Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, PMB 5538, Ile-Ife, Osun State 234, Nigeria

Received 15 August 2010; Accepted 21 March 2011

Academic Editor: Anjay Rastogi

Copyright © 2011 Wasiu A. Olowu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) clinical types, prevalence, aetiology, and acute cardiovascular morbidity impact on the outcome of acute kidney function perturbation were determined. Forty-seven of 101 (46.53%) patients with perturbed kidney function had CRS. Types 3 and 5 CRS were found in 10 and 37 patients, respectively. Type 3 CRS was due to acute glomerulonephritis (AGN; 𝑛 = 7 ), captopril ( 𝑛 = 1 ), frusemide ( 𝑛 = 1 ), and hypovolaemia ( 𝑛 = 1 ). Malaria-associated haemoglobinuria ( 𝑛 = 2 0 ), septicaemia ( 𝑛 = 1 1 ), lupus nephritis ( 𝑛 = 3 ), tumour lysis syndrome ( 𝑛 = 2 ), and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ( 𝑛 = 1 ) caused Type 5 CRS. The cumulative mortality in hypertensive CRS was similar to nonhypertensive CRS (51.4% versus 40.9%; 𝑃 = . 1 1 9 ). Mortality in CRS and non-CRS was similar (45.7% versus 24.5%; 𝑃 = . 0 5 3 ). Type 5 survived better than type 3 CRS (66.7% versus 12.5%; 𝑃 = . 0 0 1 ). Risk factors for mortality were Type 3 CRS ( 𝑃 = . 0 0 1 ), AGN-associated CRS ( 𝑃 = . 0 2 3 ), dialysis requiring CRS ( 𝑃 = . 0 0 8 ), and heart failure due to causes other than anaemia ( 𝑃 = . 0 0 3 ). All-cause-mortality was 34.2%. Preventive measures aimed at the preventable CRS aetiologies might be critical to reducing its prevalence.