Table 1: Mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the cardiorenal syndrome in HFPEF patients.

Main mechanisms
(i) Intra-abdominal and central venous pressure elevation.
(ii) Activations of the renin-angiotensin systematic.

Other mechanisms
(i) Sympathetic overactivity.
(ii) Oxidative injury and endothelial dysfunction.

Precipitating factors
Disease conditions that is, Infections.

Drugs, that is, nonsteroidal inflammatory agents.