Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 938651, 8 pages
Review Article

Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4—Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Management

Department of Nephrology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital of Thessaloniki “Hippokration”, Papanastasiou 50, 546 42 Thessaloniki, Greece

Received 30 August 2010; Accepted 3 January 2011

Academic Editor: Claudio Ronco

Copyright © 2011 Panagiotis Pateinakis and Aikaterini Papagianni. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The term cardiorenal syndrome refers to the interaction between the heart and the kidney in disease and encompasses five distinct types according to the initial site affected and the acute or chronic nature of the injury. Type 4, or chronic renocardiac syndrome, involves the features of chronic renal disease (CKD) leading to cardiovascular injury. There is sufficient epidemiologic evidence linking CKD with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology goes beyond the highly prevalent traditional cardiovascular risk burden affecting renal patients. It involves CKD-related factors, which lead to cardiac and vascular pathology, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and vascular calcification. Risk management should consider both traditional and CKD-related factors, while therapeutic interventions, apart from appearing underutilized, still await further confirmation from large trials.