Table 1: Effect of prematurity alone or prematurity with IUGR on postnatal kidney growth, morphology, and programming of renal dysfunction and blood pressure.

Author (reference)CountryStudy designSummary of reported findings

Rodríguezet al. [39] USAAn autopsy study of 56 extremely premature infants ( AGA, and SGA)Decreased RGC in premature AGA versus term
Increased mesangial tuft area and Bowman’s capsule area in preterm surviving >40 days without RF versus term or preterm surviving <40 days with or without RF
Keijzer-Veenet al. [40]NetherlandsDetermination of renal size at 20 years of age by ultrasonography in 81 individuals born preterm AGA, ( ), SGA ( ), or term ( )Decreased kidney size in both preterm AGA and SGA versus term. No difference in kidney size between AGA and SGA preterm
Drougia et al. [18]GreeceDetermination of kidney length at 2 years of chronologic age in 466 children ( AGA and SGA)Decreased kidney length in preterm SGA (<36 weeks of GA) versus preterm AGA
Schmidt et al. [20]DenmarkDetermination of kidney volume by ultrasonography at birth and at 18 months of age in preterm or term SGA ( ) versus term AGA ( )Reduced kidney volume at birth and 18 month of age in premature AGA versus term AGA and in preterm SGA versus preterm AGA.
Sutherland et al. [41]AustraliaDetermination of kidney morphology on autopsy in 28 preterm neonates at 2–68 days after birth and 32 stillborn gestational controlsHigher percentage of enlarged glomeruli in preterm versus controls, no difference in kidney weight in preterm SGA versus preterm AGA
Hinchliffe et al. [22]UKDetermination of total glomerular number and volume in stillborn AGA and SGA neonates, in liveborn AGA, and SGA infants who died within 1 year of birthDecreased glomerular number in SGA versus AGA in both stillborn and those who died within 1 year after birth, no difference in glomerular volume
Gubhaju et al. [42]AustraliaDetermination of kidney and glomerular size, glomerular density, glomerular morphology and number, and number of glomerular generations in preterm baboons studied after 21 days of extrauterine life versus GA-matched controlsLarger kidneys, decreased glomerular density, enlarged glomeruli, shrunken glomerular tuft, and cystic Bowman’s space in preterm versus controls
No difference in total number of glomeruli or number of glomerular generations
Stelloh et al. [35]USADetermination of the effect of preterm delivery at 1-2 days prior to term birth in mice on glomerular number, blood pressure, measured GFR, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio at 5 weeks of ageA 20% decrease in glomerular number, increased blood pressure, lower GFR and higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio in preterm versus term
Keijzer-Veen et al. [43]NetherlandsDetermination of blood pressure at 19 years of age in 422 individuals with GA < 32 weeks and in 174 individuals with GA > 32 weeks and birth weight <1500 gIncreased prevalence of elevated blood
pressure in GA < 32 weeks versus GA > 32 weeks not related with IUGR, increased postnatal weight gain and weight at age of 19 affected the risk for hypertension
Singhal et al. [44]UKDetermination of blood pressure and flow-mediated endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in preterm SGA ( ), preterm AGA ( ), and term AGA ( ) individuals at age 13–16 yearsNo difference in blood pressure among all groups and reduced EDV in preterm SGA versus preterm or term AGA
Leon et al. [45]SwedenRecord linkage study of 165;136 men studied at mean age of 18 yearsInverse association of blood pressure with GA alone or with GA adjusted for birth weight (SGA) and increased inverse association of blood pressure in SGA versus AGA
Kistner et al. [46]SwedenDetermination of systolic ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) at a mean age of years in woman born term SGA ( ), with term AGA ( ), and preterm AGA ( )Higher systolic ABP in preterm AGA versus term AGA or term SGA, no difference in term SGA versus term AGA
Cheung et al. [47]ChinaDetermination of mean blood pressure and brachioradial artery pulse wave velocity (PWV) in ex-preterm SGA ( ), preterm AGA ( ), and term AGA ( ) children at years of ageHigher mean blood pressure and PWV in preterm SGA versus preterm or term AGA
Keijzer-Veen et al. [31]NetherlandsDetermination of GFR and urine albumin/creatinine ratio at 19 years of age in individuals with GA < 32 weeks SGA ( ) or AGA ( )Decreased GFR and increased prevalence of high albumin/creatinine ratio in preterm SGA versus AGA
Bacchetta et al. [48]FranceSingle-center prospective cohort study
Determination of GFR measured by inulin clearance at mean age of years in preterm SGA ( ), AGA ( ), and preterm with EUGR ( )
Lower GFR in SGA versus AGA and in EUGR versus AGA, no difference in urine albumin/creatinine ratio or in blood pressure among the groups

RGC: radial glomerular count, RF: renal failure, GA: gestational age, SGA: small for GA, AGA: appropriate for GA, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, EUGR: extrauterine growth retardation.