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International Journal of Nephrology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 108139, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/108139
Research Article

Prognosis of Acute Kidney Injury and Hepatorenal Syndrome in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02114, USA
3Liver Center and Gastrointestinal Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
4Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Received 22 April 2015; Revised 28 June 2015; Accepted 6 July 2015

Academic Editor: Suresh C. Tiwari

Copyright © 2015 Andrew S. Allegretti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background/Aims. Acute kidney injury is a common problem for patients with cirrhosis and is associated with poor survival. We aimed to examine the association between type of acute kidney injury and 90-day mortality. Methods. Prospective cohort study at a major US liver transplant center. A nephrologist’s review of the urinary sediment was used in conjunction with the 2007 Ascites Club Criteria to stratify acute kidney injury into four groups: prerenal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome, acute tubular necrosis, or other. Results. 120 participants with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury were analyzed. Ninety-day mortality was 14/40 (35%) with prerenal azotemia, 20/35 (57%) with hepatorenal syndrome, 21/36 (58%) with acute tubular necrosis, and 1/9 (11%) with other ( overall). Mortality was the same in hepatorenal syndrome compared to acute tubular necrosis (). Mortality was lower in prerenal azotemia compared to hepatorenal syndrome () and acute tubular necrosis (). Ten participants (22%) were reclassified from hepatorenal syndrome to acute tubular necrosis because of granular casts on urinary sediment. Conclusions. Hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis result in similar 90-day mortality. Review of urinary sediment may add important diagnostic information to this population. Multicenter studies are needed to validate these findings and better guide management.