International Journal of Nephrology / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Lower Limb Amputation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis: A Systematic Review

Table 2

Summary of studies assessing risk factors of amputation in subjects on renal dialysis.

AuthorRisk factors for amputation in all dialysis patients

Speckman et al., 2004 [19]MUR < 58.5%: HR 2.4 (CI 1.4–4.2),
CVD: HR 2.4 (CI 1.6–3.7),

Combe et al., 2009 [22]DM: AOR 5.55 (CI 4.63–6.64),
Men: AOR 1.82 (CI 1.61–2.06),
Blacks: AOR 1.45 (CI 1.28–1.65),
Smoking: AOR 1.22 (CI 1.03–1.43),
Retinopathy: AOR 1.78 (CI 1.55–2.04),
Peripheral neuropathy: AOR 2.25 (CI 1.98–2.56),
Calciphylaxis: AOR 2.37 (CI 1.63–3.45),

Plantinga et al., 2009 [24]DM: RH 4.33 (CI 2.98–6.30),
PVD: RH 1.59 (CI 1.17–2.15),
CRP: RH 2.7 (CI 1.72–4.23),
Albumin < 3.3 g/dL: RH 0.63 (CI 0.42–0.94),

Locking-Cusolito et al., 2005 [20]DM: AOR 10.17 (CI 3.7–27.7),

Ishii et al., 2012 [23]DM: HR 5.29 (CI 2–13.9),
CRP: HR 1.01 (CI 1–1.02),

Reddy et al., 2007 [21]Dialysis > 12 months: AOR 2.74 (CI 1.22–6.16),

DM, diabetes mellitus; HR, hazard ratio; RH, relative hazard; AOR, adjusted odds ratio; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; MUR, mean urea reduction; CI: 95% confidence interval.

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