Table 5: Selected studies on the renal biopsy in children.

Autor, yearCountrynAges, mean age yearsMost frequent indication ()Most frequent postbiopsy diagnosis ()Most frequent specific disease entity ()Complications (%)

Coppo R, 1998Italy432< 15 
8.96±3.7
SP (31.2)Glomerular diseases (66.9)IgAGN (18.8)ND

Madani A, 2003Iran6010-16NDNDMCD (18.5)ND

Bazina M, 2007 Croacia651 - 18 
11.1±4.8
NS (41.5)NDMesPGN (27.7)Retroperitoneal hemorrhage which needed blood transfusion (3.07)

Yuen L, 2008China1712- 24 
11
Native kidneys: SDRI (34)Native kidneys: Glomerular diseases (66)MCD (14)ND

Piotto GH, 2008Brazil2629.8 ± 4.2NS (42.4)NDMCD (61.3)Gross hematuria (5.6), bradycardia and hypotension (0.7)

Demircin G, 2009Turkey6140.1 - 24 
10.4
NS (47)Glomerular diseases (61.2)MPGN (11.1)Perirenal hematoma (12.4), gross hematuria (2.6), AV fistula (1)

Orta N, 2009Venezuela3950.2 – 20 
11 ± 7.2
NS (55)Glomerular diseases (77)MCD (46)Transient hematuria (5), perirenal hematoma (<1), gut perforation (<0.2), bleeding which required blood transfusion (<0.5), nephrectomy because of incontrollable bleeding (0.2)

Lanewala,2009Pakistan8010.4 -18 
10.59 ± 4.54
Native Kidneys: NS (69.4)Glomerular diseases (87.64)MCD (29.4)ND

Absar A, 2010Pakistán401 - 14 
9
NS (61)NDMCD (37)ND

Miller M, 2010Jamaica1570.1 - 11 
7.58
NS (57.4)Glomerular diseases (53)DPGN (27.7)ND

Abdelraheem MB, 2010Sudan3210.2 - 16 
8.71
NS (62.9)NDMCD (29.9)ND

Cots JV, 2010Spain1640.6 - 18SDNS (16.1)NDIgAGN (26.1)Perirrenal hematoma (72.2), gross Hematuria (6), renal hematoma and hypotension (0.6)

Printza, 2011Greece811-18 
9.56
NS (34.5)Glomerular diseases (69)FSGS (15)Subcapsular hematoma (11)

Abdullah LS, 2012Arabia Saudí2520- 17 
11.2
NS (48.3)Glomerular diseases (88.4)MesPGN (19.8)ND

Paripovic D, 2012Serbia1500.2 - 20 
11.5
NS (32.9)Glomerular diseases (57.4)FSGS (20.9)ND

Bakr A, 2014Egypt10960.2 - 18 
9.2 +/- 3.7
SRNS (28.4)Glomerular diseases (67.4)MCD (21.8)ND

Hadidi R, 2014Jordan551 - 13SRNS (25)NDMCD (27)Gross hematuria (5.5)

Mutalik P, 2015India1400.6 - 14 
6.31 ± 3.75
NS (77.9)NDMCD (33.5)ND

Imtiaz S, 2016Pakistan42310.48 +/- 4.58NS (74.2)Glomerular diseases (85.1)MCD (30.3)ND

Abdel-Hafez, 2017Egypt2100.3 - 18 
10.51 ± 3.81
NS (43.89)NDMCD (22.17)Local pain (60.58), gross hematuria (5.88), perirrenal hematoma (1.36)

SP: subnephrotic proteinuria; NS: nephrotic syndrome; SDRI: systemic disease with renal involvement; IgAGN: IgA nephropathy; MCD: minimal change disease; FSGS: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, MPGN: membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; DPGN: diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis; SRNS: steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome; MesPGN: mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis; SDNS: steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome; ND: not described; AV: arteriovenous.