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International Journal of Optics
Volume 2012, Article ID 502930, 19 pages
Review Article

Gap Nanoantennas toward Molecular Plasmonic Devices

1CINaM-CNRS, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France
2Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands
3ICFO—Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels, 08860 Barcelona, Spain
4ICREA—Institucío Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08015 Barcelona, Spain

Received 30 September 2011; Revised 16 December 2011; Accepted 16 December 2011

Academic Editor: Ali Passian

Copyright © 2012 Aude L. Lereu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Recently we have demonstrated that single fluorescent molecules can be used as non-perturbative vectorial probes of the local field. Here, we expand on such experiments exploiting fluorescence lifetime of single molecules to probe various types of gap nanoantennas. First, studies of the nanoantennas are carried out to evaluate the electric field. We then investigate hybrid systems composed by nanoantennas and randomly positioned fluorescent molecules. Finally, we present a fabrication scheme for the controlled placement of fluorescent molecules at welldefined positions with respect to the dimer nanoantenna, which is a more direct route to probe the local field in an a priori determined way.