Adaptive Fringe Projection for 3D Shape Measurement with Large Reflectivity Variations by Using Image Fusion and Predicted SearchRead the full article
International Journal of Optics publishes both fundamental and highly applied studies on the nature of light, its properties and behaviours, and its interaction with matter.
Chief Editor, Professor Cerullo, leads the Ultrafast Spectroscopy group at the Department of Physics at the Polytechnic University of Milan. His research activity has mainly focused on the physics and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers.
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A Bright Entanglement and Squeezing Generated by an External Pumping Radiation in a Correlated Emission Laser
The quantum and statistical properties of light generated by an external classical field in a correlated emission laser with a parametric amplifier and coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir are investigated using the combination of the master and stochastic differential equations. First, the solutions of the cavity-mode variables and correlation properties of noise forces associated to the normal ordering are obtained. Next, applying the resulting solutions, the mean photon number of the separate cavity modes and their crosscorrelation, smallest eigenvalue of the symplectic matrix, mean photon number, intensity difference fluctuation, photon number variance, and intensity correlation are derived for the cavity-mode radiation. The entanglement produced is studied employing the logarithmic negativity criterion. It is found that pumping atoms from the lower energy state to excited state, introducing the nonlinear crystal into the cavity and coupling the system to a biased noise fluctuation, generate a bright and strong squeezing and entanglement with enhanced statistical properties although the atoms are initially in the ground state.
High-Sensitivity Biosensor-Based Enhanced SPR by ZnO/MoS2 Nanowires Array Layer with Graphene Oxide Nanosheet
A novel SPR biosensor that can achieve a high sensitivity is proposed; therefore, a new prism coupling structure based on metal nanowires array layer is designed in this paper. The thickness of each medium layer for the structure is analyzed to obtain the optimal SPR spectrum, by the finite element method, so that the sensitivity is able to be enhanced greatly. The optimal thicknesses of each medium layer are given, and the sensitivity of the SPR biosensor can reach as high as 210.75°/RIU for the refractive index of the sensing medium, from 1.30 to 1.38.
Low-Glare Freeform-Surfaced Street Light Luminaire Optimization to Meet Enhanced Road Lighting Standards
To enhance driving safety at night, a new freeform-surface street light luminaire was proposed and evaluated in this study that meets the requirements of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) M3 class standard for road lighting. The luminaire was designed using simulations to optimize the location of the bulb according to the requirements of the standard. The light source IES file was experimentally obtained for the optimized luminaire prototype with a 150 W ceramic metal halide lamp using an imaging goniophotometer. The trial road lighting simulation results computed by the lighting software DIALux indicated that the proposed luminaire provided an average road surface brightness of 1.1 cd/m2 (compared to a minimum requirement of 1.0 cd/m2), a brightness uniformity of 0.41 (compared to a minimum requirement of 0.4), a longitudinal brightness uniformity of 0.64 (compared to a minimum requirement of 0.6), and a glare factor of 7.6% (compared to a maximum limit of 15%). The findings of the image goniophotometer tests were then confirmed by the results of a certified mirror goniophotometer test conducted by the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF). The results of this study can be used to provide improved street lighting designs to meet enhanced international standards.
Image Encryption Based on High-Dimensional Manifold Computing and Block Dividing Algorithm
The image encryption schemes developing more sensitive and more chaotic maps are used as a key sequence generator, such as cascade chaotic maps and high-dimension maps. High-dimension chaotic maps can generate sequences with little correlation after hundred times of iteration. In fact, the sequence is just a flow of the manifold of the chaotic system. A fast way to select sensitive flows of the dynamic systems is introduced in the paper. Combining with the divided blocks diffusion algorithm, the novel scheme yields the cipher image more randomly. Experimental results show that the sensitive flows of the high-dimension system can generate a series with better ergodicity and less correlation compared with the common flows of the same system. The encryption efficiency is enhanced by choosing the sensitive flows of the high-dimension system. The analysis proved that the novel image encryption scheme can resist all common kinds of attacks.
Simplified Geometric Approach to Freeform Beam Shaper Design
Beam of light shaping process can be considered ultimate, if both irradiance and wavefront spatial distributions are under control and both can be shaped arbitrarily. In order to keep these two quantities determined simultaneously, it is required to apply at least two powered refractive or reflective surfaces. In this paper, a fully geometric design method of double-freeform beam shapers is discussed briefly. The presented algorithm is based on two stages. First, integrable input-output ray mapping is calculated by the application of the novel GATMA (Geometric Approach to Monge–Ampere equation) method. It allows us to determine the shape of the first freeform surface. Then, according to the condition of constant optical path length between input and output plane, corrected by wavefront phases at those planes, the second surface is determined. GATMA algorithm combines advantages of Monge–Ampere (MA) equation and ray-tracing efficient apparatus. Compared to the state-of-the-art freeform design methods, GATMA does not need to solve MA equation directly but uses this equation as an error function. Such approach makes the computation algorithm simpler and more robust and convergent. The application of the proposed method in a challenging design example of a beam shaper, transforming uniform collimated beam into a beam having a triangular cross section and flat wavefront, is presented as a case study.
Block Sparse Bayesian Learning over Local Dictionary for Robust SAR Target Recognition
This paper applied block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target recognition. The traditional sparse representation-based classification (SRC) operates on the global dictionary collaborated by different classes. Afterwards, the similarities between the test sample and various classes are evaluated by the reconstruction errors. This paper reconstructs the test sample based on local dictionaries formed by individual classes. Considering the azimuthal sensitivity of SAR images, the linear coefficients on the local dictionary are sparse ones with block structure. Therefore, to solve the sparse coefficients, the BSBL is employed. The proposed method can better exploit the representation capability of each class, thus benefiting the recognition performance. Based on the experimental results on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) dataset, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is confirmed.