Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Optics
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 748763, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/748763
Review Article

Optical Emission of the Nuclear-Induced Plasmas of Gas Mixtures

Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System PI, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan

Received 30 December 2013; Revised 24 March 2014; Accepted 24 March 2014; Published 27 April 2014

Academic Editor: Gong-Ru Lin

Copyright © 2014 Mendykhan U. Khasenov. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. T. Shneider and F. Hohl, “Nuclear pumped lasers,” in Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, J. Lewis and M. Becker, Eds., vol. 16, pp. 123–287, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. P. Mel’nikov, A. N. Sizov, and A. A. Sinyanskii, Nuclear Pumped Lasers, VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia, 2008 (Russian).
  3. A. V. Karelin, A. A. Sinyanskiǐ, and S. I. Yakovlenko, “Nuclear-pumped lasers and physical problems in constructing a reactor-laser,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 375–402, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. V. Zagidulin, A. V. Bochkov, V. V. Mironenko, and G. S. Sofienko, “A 500-J nuclear-pumped gas laser,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 1059–1062, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. U. Khasenov, Nuclear-Induced Plasmas of Gas Mixtures and Nuclear Pumped Lasers, Almaty, 2011 (Russian).
  6. A. M. Voinov, L. E. Dovbysh, V. N. Krivonosov et al., “Low-threshold nuclear-pumped lasers using transitions of atomic xenon,” Soviet Physics Doklady, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 189–190, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  7. B. D. Carter, M. J. Rowe, and R. T. Schneider, “Nuclear-pumped cw lasing of the 3He-Ne system,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 115–117, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov, A. B. Tleuzhanov et al., “Investigation of the active media of lasers operating in the nuclear reactor,” Final Scientific Report GR 81032078, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1986 (Russian).
  9. A. B. Dmitriev, V. S. Il’yashenko, A. I. Mis’kevich, and B. S. Salamakha, “Luminescence of neon and some of its mixtures at high pressures,” Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1165–1168, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. A. Batyrbekov, E. G. Batyrbekov, V. A. Danilychev, and M. U. Khasenov, “Efficiency of populating neon 3p-levels under ionized pumping,” Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1241–1245, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  11. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, Springer, 4th edition, 1998.
  12. A. V. Fedenev and V. F. Tarasenko, “Simulation of NPL in experiments with e-beam pumping,” Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 327–380, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Ulrich, “Light emission from the particle beam induced plasma: an overview,” Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. U. Khasenov, “Emission of the heteronuclear ionic molecules (ArXe)+ at excitation by a hard ionizer,” in Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers VI, vol. 6263 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 141–148, September 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. U. Khasenov, “Emission of the 3He-Xe-Cd mixture in the active zone of a nuclear reactor,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1124–1126, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov, E. Yu. Kuzmin et al., “Radiation resistance of elements of the laser system in the core of nuclear reactor,” Izvestija Akademii Nauk Kazachskoj SSR, no. 6, pp. 23–26, 1986 (Russian). View at Google Scholar
  17. M. U. Khasenov, “Nuclear-induced plasma—the source of optical emission,” NNC RK Bulletin, no. 1, pp. 55–72, 2010 (Russian). View at Google Scholar
  18. N. G. Basov, A. Yu. Aleksandrov, V. A. Danilychev et al., “Powerful quasi-cw laser of high pressure on p-s-transitions of Ne atom,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 147, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. V. Karelin and S. I. Yakovlenko, “Kinetic model of an He-Ne-Ar-H2 laser pumped by hard ionising radiation,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 739–745, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Sakasai, T. Kakuta, and M. Nakazawa, “Numerical simulation of a nuclear pumped 3He-Ne-Ar gas laser for its optimization,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 37, no. 9, part 1, pp. 4806–4811, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. A. Hebner and G. N. Hays, “Fission-fragment-excited lasing at 585.3 nm in He/Ne/Ar gas mixtures,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 57, no. 21, pp. 2175–2177, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. R. Shaban and G. H. Miley, “Practical, visible wavelength nuclear-pumped laser,” Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 559–566, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. I. Konak, S. P. Mel'nikov, V. V. Porkhaev, and A. A. Sinyanskii, “Characteristics of nuclear-pumped lasers based on the 3p-3s transitions in the neon atom,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 209–214, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. J. W. Shon, R. L. Rhoades, J. T. Verdeyen, and M. J. Kushner, “Short pulse electron beam excitation of the high-pressure atomic Ne laser,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 8059–8065, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. U. Khasenov, “On the mechanism of populating 3p levels of neon under pumping by a hard ioniser,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 198–201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. A. Mavlyutov, A. I. Mis’kevich, and B. S. Salamakha, “Nuclear pumping of Ne-O2 and Ar-I2 mixtures,” Laser Physics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  27. I. I. Smirnova and M. U. Khasenov, “Possible use of ion-ion recombination in nuclear pumped lasers,” in Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers VII, vol. 6938 of Proceedings of SPIE, p. 8, Tomsk, Russia, September 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. D. Poletaev, B. Yu. Dorofeev, P. P. D’yachenko et al., “Emission characteristics of pure neon and He-Ne mixture excited by a high-pressure nuclear particles,” Technical Physics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 114–121, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  29. A. A. Abramov, V. V. Gorbunov, S. P. Melnikov et al., “Luminescence of nuclear-induced rare-gas plasmas in near infrared spectral range,” in Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers VI, vol. 6263 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 279–296, May 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. P. Apruzese, J. L. Giuliani, M. F. Wolford et al., “Optimizing the Ar-Xe infrared laser on the Naval Research Laboratory's Electra generator,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 1, Article ID 013101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. N. Babichev, A. V. Karelin, O. V. Simakova, and H. Tomizawa, “Optimization of a He-Ar laser with an electron-beam and nuclear pumping,” Laser Physics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 835–858, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. B. Collins and F. W. Lee, “Measurement of the rate coefficients for the bimolecular and termolecular ion-molecule reactions of Ar2+ with selected atomic and molecular species,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 184–191, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. J. Shul, R. Passarella, B. L. Upschulte, R. G. Keesee, and A. W. Castleman Jr., “Thermal energy reactions involving Ar+ monomer and dimer with N2, H2, Xe, and Kr,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 4446–4451, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. V. Gorbunov, V. D. Grigor’ev, L. E. Dovbysh et al., “The luminescence spectra in the 350–875 nm range of the dense gas excited by uranium fission fragments,” Proceedings of RFNC-VNIIEF, no. 6, pp. 148–185, 2004 (Russian). View at Google Scholar
  35. G. B. Ramos, M. Schlamkowitz, J. Sheldon, K. A. Hardy, and J. R. Peterson, “Observation of dissociative recombination of Ne2+ and Ar2+ directly to the ground state of the product atoms,” Physical Review A, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 2945–2950, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Barrios, J. W. Sheldon, K. A. Hardy, and J. R. Peterson, “Superthermal component in an effusive beam of metastable krypton: evidence of Kr2+ dissociative recombination,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 1348–1351, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. B. Dmitriev, V. S. Il’yashenko, A. I. Mis’kevich et al., “Excitation of laser transitions in gas mixtures with metal vapors by products of neutron nuclear reactions,” Technical Physics, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2235–2237, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  38. G. A. Batyrbekov, E. G. Batyrbekov, A. B. Tleuzhanov, and M. U. Khasenov, “Measurement of the coefficient of conversion of nuclear energy into luminous energy in Xe+Hg and Kr+Hg mixtures,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1069–1072, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. G. Basov, G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov et al., “Method for generation in a laser on a mercury mixture with molecular gas,” Patent USSR N1322950, 1985.
  40. G. A. Batyrbekov, V. A. Dolgikh, I. G. Rudoi, A. M. Soroka, A. B. Tleuzhanov, and M. U. Khasenov, “Luminescence of mixtures of mercury and inert gases containing molecular additives with excitation by ionizing radiation,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1139–1143, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Johnsen and M. A. Biondi, “Charge transfer of atomic and molecular rare-gas ions with mercury atoms at thermal energy,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 5045–5050, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov, A. M. Soroka et al., “Feasibility of construction of a quasi-cw laser utilizing 7s-6p transitions in mercury pumped by ionizing radiation,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 774–775, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  43. A. V. Bochkov, V. A. Kryzhanowskii, E. P. Magda et al., “Quasi-cw lasing on the 73S1-63P2 atomic mercury transition,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 91–93, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. L. Rhoades and J. T. Verdeyen, “Electron beam pumping of the 546.1 nm mercury laser,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 60, no. 24, pp. 2951–2953, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. M. Smirnov, “Gas laser on negative ion,” Soviet Physics Doklady, vol. 12, pp. 242–244, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. J. Kushner, “Nuclear-reactor pumped lasers excited by ion-ion neutralization,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov, A. M. Soroka et al., “Kinetics of excited states of Hg pumping by ionizing radiation” (Russian), Preprint of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, no. 3/87, Almaty, 1987.
  48. D. P. Greene and J. G. Eden, “Cd(63S1→53P1) laser at 480 nm pumped by a transverse discharge,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1739–1741, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. P. Magda, “Analysis of experimental and theoretical research of nuclear-pumped lasers at the institute of technical physics,” Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 469–476, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. P. Bugaev, F. G. Goryunov, D. Yu. Nagornyii et al., “UV generation by electron beam pumping of He-Cd mixture,” Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 744–747, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  51. N. G. Basov, A. Yu. Aleksandrov, V. A. Danilychev et al., “Efficient quasi-cw laser in the first negative system of nitrogen,” JETP Letters, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  52. M. U. Khasenov, V. A. Dolgich, and A. M. Soroka, “Kinetics of CO first negative system excitation by ionized radiation,” in Proceedings of the Specialist Conference on “Physics of Nuclear Induced Plasmas and Problems of Nuclear Pumped Lasers”, p. 56, Obninsk, Russia, 1992.
  53. M. U. Khasenov, “Kinetics of CO first negative system excitation by ionized radiation,” in Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers V, vol. 5483 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 14–23, May 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. A. Waller, C. B. Collins, and A. J. Cunningham, “Stimulated emission from CO+ pumped by charge transfer from He2+ in the afterglow of an e-beam discharge,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 323–325, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Friedl, “Krypton-Xenon Banden,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, vol. 14, no. 9, p. 848, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  56. E. Kugler, “Uber die Lumineszenze der Edelgasgemische Ar/Xe, Kr/Xe, Ar/Kr und der Gemische Xe/N2 und Kr/N2 bei Angerung mit schnellen Elektronen,” Annalen der Physik, vol. 14, no. 3-4, pp. 137–146, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  57. P. Millet, A. M. Barrie, A. Birot et al., “Kinetic study of (ArKr)+ and (ArXe)+ heteronuclear ion emissions,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, vol. 14, no. 3, article 023, pp. 459–472, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. A. Batyrbekov, E. G. Batyrbekov, A. B. Tleuzhanov, and M. U. Khasenov, “Molecular band in an emission spectrum of Ar-Xe,” Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 212–214, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  59. M. U. Khasenov, “Emission of ionic molecules (KrXe)+ on excitation by a hard ionizer,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 316–320, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. U. Khasenov, M. T. Nakiskozhaev, A. S. Syrlybaev, and I. I. Smirnova, “Emission of inert gas halides at excitation by alpha-particles,” Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1057–1059, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  61. G. N. Hays, D. A. McArthur, D. R. Neal, and J. K. Rice, “Gain measurements near 351 nm in 3He/Xe/NF3 mixtures excited by fragments from the 3He(n, p) 3H reaction,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 363–365, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. I. Mis’kevich, Guo Jinbo, and A. Yu. Dyuzhov, “Spontaneous and induced emission of XeCl* excimer molecules under pumping of Xe-CCl4 and Ar-Xe-CCl4 gas mixtures with a low CCl4 content by fast electrons and uranium fission fragments,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1003–1008, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  63. L. I. Virin, R. V. Dzhagatspanyan, G. V. Karachevtsev et al., Ion-Molecular Reactions in Gases, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 1979 (Russian).
  64. A. A. Radzyg and B. M. Smirnov, Reference Book on Atomic and Molecular Physics, Atomizdat, Moscow, Russia, 1980 (Russian).
  65. D. L. Judge and L. C. Lee, “Electronic transition moments for the A → X, B → X, and B → A transitions in CO+ and the A X and B X moments for the CO → CO+ systems; absolute cross sections for the absorption processes,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 455–462, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. B. Collins, “The nitrogen ion laser pumped by charge transfer,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 47–63, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. U. Khasenov, “Kinetics of the nitrogen first negative system excitation by ionising radiation,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1104–1106, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. F. W. Lee, C. B. Collins, and R. A. Waller, “Measurement of the rate coefficients for the bimolecular and termolecular charge trasfer reactions of He2+ with Ne, Ar, N2, CO, CO2, and CH4,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 1605–1615, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. C. B. Collins and F. W. Lee, “Measurement of the rate coefficients for the bimolecular and termolecular ion-molecule reactions of He2+ with selected atomic and molecular species,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 1391–1401, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. A. Dolgich, I. G. Rudoi, A. Yu. Samarin, and A. M. Soroka, “Kinetics of inversion destruction in the laser on the first negative system of nitrogen,” Quantum Electronics, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 854–856, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  71. A. Yu. Aleksandrov, V. A. Dolgich, O. M. Kerimov et al., “Effective collision lasers in the visible and UV regions of spectrum,” Izvestija Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1474–1483, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  72. Y. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, and D. E. Freeman, “Emission spectra of heteronuclear diatomic rare gas positive ions,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 4484–4496, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Laigle and F. Collier, “Kinetic study of (ArXe)+ heteronuclear ion in electron beam excited Ar-Xe mixture,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, vol. 16, no. 4, article 021, pp. 687–697, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Tsuji, M. Tanaka, and Y. Nishimura, “New emission spectra of KrXe+ produced from Kr afterglow reactions of Xe,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 262, no. 3-4, pp. 349–354, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Millet, A. Birot, H. Brunet, M. Espagnan, J. Galy, and Y. Salmero, “Kinetic study of the KrXe+ heteronuclear ion emission,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, vol. 16, no. 8, article 013, pp. 1383–1392, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. A. Mavlyutov and A. I. Mis'kevich, “Nuclear pumped excimer laser operating at 308 nm wavelength,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 326–327, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. A. Batyrbekov, M. U. Khasenov, S. A. Kostriza et al., “Feasibility of excimer lasers with ionization by radiation from a nuclear reactor,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 789–791, 1982. View at Google Scholar