A Ten-Year Review of Audiological Performance in Children with Inner Ear Abnormalities after Cochlear Implantation in SingaporeRead the full article
International Journal of Otolaryngology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.
International Journal of Otolaryngology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis That Inflammation-Induced Vasospasm Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Acquired Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Sensorineural hearing loss is mainly acquired and affects an estimated 1.3 billion humans worldwide. It is related to aging, noise, infection, ototoxic drugs, and genetic defects. It is essential to identify reversible and preventable causes to be able to reduce the burden of this disease. Inflammation is involved in most causes and leads to tissue injury through vasospasm-associated ischemia. Vasospasm is reversible. This review summarized evidence linking inflammation-induced vasospasm to several forms of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. The link between vasospasm and sensorineural hearing loss is directly evident in subarachnoid haemorrhage, which involves the release of vasoconstriction-inducing cytokines like interleukin-1, endothelin-1, and tumour necrosis factor. These proinflammatory cytokines can also be released in response to infection, autoimmune disease, and acute or chronically increased inflammation in the ageing organism as in presbyacusis or in noise-induced cochlear injury. Evidence of vasospasm and hearing loss has also been discovered in bacterial meningitis and brain injury. Resolution of inflammation-induced vasospasm has been associated with improvement of hearing in autoimmune diseases involving overproduction of interleukin-1 from inflammasomes. There is mainly indirect evidence for vasospasm-associated sensorineural hearing loss in most forms of systemic or injury- or infection-induced local vascular inflammation. This opens up avenues in prevention and treatment of vascular and systemic inflammation as well as vasospasm itself as a way to prevent and treat most forms of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Future research needs to investigate interventions antagonising vasospasm and vasospasm-inducing proinflammatory cytokines and their production in randomised controlled trials of prevention and treatment of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Prime candidates for interventions are hereby inflammasome inhibitors and vasospasm-reducing drugs like nitric oxide donors, rho-kinase inhibitors, and magnesium which have the potential to reduce sensorineural hearing loss in meningitis, exposure to noise, brain injury, arteriosclerosis, and advanced age-related and autoimmune disease-related inflammation.
Use of Phenol as a Local Anaesthetic for Adult Grommet Insertion in Resource-Limited Settings: A Preliminary Report
Background. Grommet insertion is one of the most commonly performed minor surgical procedures in otolaryngological practice. For such minor procedures in the outpatient, local anaesthetics are preferred; this is even more so in adults especially for grommet insertion. This study described our experience with the use of phenol as a local anaesthetic agent for grommet insertion in adults. Methods. Phenol was used as a local anaesthetic agent that was applied topically for grommet insertion in adult patients as outpatient procedures between January and September 2018 in two tertiary hospitals. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS IBM) version 23.0 computer software. Results. Nineteen ear drums were operated in patients aged between 20 and 52 years. No pain or discomfort was reported by 89.5% and 94.7% had no bleeding. There was no vertigo in all the cases that completed the procedures. Conclusion. This preliminary result shows that the use of phenol as a topical local anesthetic is simple, safe, and effective especially in resource-limited environments.
Moffett’s Solution Causes Significantly Greater Postoperative Throat Pain Compared to Cophenylcaine in Sinonasal Surgery
Aim. Preoperative decongestion with Moffett’s solution is routine practice in sinonasal procedures providing an ideal operative field. Anecdotally, it is related to postoperative throat pain, yet a quantitative relationship has not been established. We compare the incidence and severity of postoperative throat pain after application of Moffett’s solution against Cophenylcaine decongestion. Methodology. A total of thirty patients from two consultants were recruited. The intervention arm (twenty) was decongested with Moffett’s solution and the control arm (ten) with Cophenylcaine. The primary outcome was self-reported postoperative throat pain as measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) at 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and next morning. Results. There was a significantly higher VAS for throat pain in patients decongested with Moffett’s solution in the early postoperative period (2 hours p=0.03, 4 hours p=0.04). Conclusion. Moffett’s solution is associated with a greater severity of transient postoperative throat pain compared to topical Cophenylcaine. We recommend further studies to identify means to minimise this side effect. Clinical Trial Registration. This paper has been registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under the registration number: ACTRN12619000772145.
Esophageal Perforation due to Anterior Cervical Spine Hardware Placement: Case Series
Context. This case series discusses surgical management of esophageal perforations that occurred following cervical spine hardware placement. Purpose. (1) Determine presenting symptoms of esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine hardware placement. (2) Discuss surgical management of these resulting esophageal perforation complications. Design/Setting. Case series of six patients at a tertiary-care, academic medical center. Patient Sample. Six patients with pharyngoesophageal perforations following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). Outcome Measures. Date of ACSS, indication for ACSS, level of hardware, location of esophageal or pharyngeal injury, symptoms at presentation, surgical intervention, type of reconstruction flap, wound culture flora, and antibiotic choice. Methods. A retrospective review of patients with an esophageal or hypopharyngeal injury in the setting of prior ACSS managed by the otolaryngology service at a tertiary, academic center between January 2015 and January 2019. Results. Six patients who experienced pharyngoesophageal perforation following ACSS are included in this study. Range of presentation was two weeks to eight years following initial hardware placement. Five patients presented with an abscess and all had evidence of perforation on initial CT or esophagram. All patients underwent repair with a sternocleidomastoid flap with two patients eventually requiring an additional pectoralis myofascial flap for a persistent esophageal leak. Five patients eventually attained ability to tolerate oral nutrition. An algorithm detailing surgical reconstructive management is proposed. Conclusions. Esophageal perforations in the setting of prior ACSS are challenging clinical problems faced by otolaryngologists. Consideration should be given to early drainage of abscesses and spine surgery evaluation. Spinal hardware removal is recommended whenever possible. Utilization of a pedicled muscle flap reinforces primary closure and allows coverage of the vertebral bony defect. Nutrition, thyroid repletion, and culture-directed IV antibiotics are necessary to optimize esophageal perforation repair.
The Influence of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Sleep Related Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Purpose. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients often complain of nasal obstruction, which may cause sleep impairment for them. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on sleep related outcomes in CRS patients. Materials and Methods. CRS patients who received FESS were included in this study. Prior to FESS and 3 months after surgery the patients were asked about the severity of nasal obstruction and completed the 20-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), along with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire. Endoscopic examination, acoustic rhinometry, and polysomnography were performed in all patients. They were divided into four groups according to their preoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) scores: nonobstructive sleep apnea syndrome (non-OSAS), mild OSAS, moderate OSAS, and severe OSAS. Results. A total of 96 subjects completed the study. The scores of the sleep domain of the SNOT-20 and ESS decreased in all of the AHI groups, with the exception of the severe OSAS group, after FESS. A reduction in the AHI of less than 5 was achieved in 9 patients (13.2%) after FESS. Conclusions. Our results showed that FESS improved sleep quality in CRS patients, except those with severe OSAS, and a preoperative lower AHI was the only significant predictor of post-FESS OSAS outcome.
Persistent Unilateral Sore Throat: Should It Be Included in the 2-Week Wait Referral Criteria by NICE
Design and Setting. A retrospective study was conducted on all 2WW referrals made to our tertiary head and neck centre in a 12-month period. Methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of presenting complaints in H&N cancer diagnosis using Excel® and the statistical package SPSS®. Results. The sensitivity and specificity of 2005 NICE guidelines in detecting H&N cancers were 91.2% and 59%, respectively; their PPV was 9%. The sensitivity and specificity of 2015 NICE guidelines were 75.4% and 71%, respectively; their PPV was 10.3%. Eight out of 85 patients who presented with unilateral sore throat for more than 4 weeks, with or without otalgia and normal otoscopy, had H&N cancer (PPV 9.5%). Conclusions. Although the 2015 NICE guidelines have a high rate in detecting H&N cancers, consideration of reincluding unilateral sore throat in the referral criteria might be necessary.