Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2011, Article ID 573968, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/573968
Review Article

New Criteria of Indication and Selection of Patients to Cochlear Implant

Cochlear Implant Center and Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Clinic, University of Brasília Medical School, 70350766 Brasilia, DE, Brazil

Received 6 May 2011; Accepted 12 August 2011

Academic Editor: Ingeborg Dhooge

Copyright © 2011 André L. L. Sampaio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Eisenberg and W. House, “Initial experience with the cochlear implant in children,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology Supplement, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 67–73, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  2. H. A. Arts, A. Garber, and T. A. Zwolan, “Cochlear implants in young children,” Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 925–943, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. B. Waltzman and J. T. Roland Jr., Cochlear Implant Candidates in Cochlear Implants, Thierme Medical Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  4. A. Cheng, G. Grant, and J. Niparko, “Meta-analysis of pediatric cochlear implant literature,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 124–128, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Kileny, T. Zwolan, and C. Ashbaugh, “The influence of age at implantation on performance with a cochlear implant in children,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 42–46, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Cosetti and J. T. Roland Jr., “Cochlear implantation in the very young child: issues unique to the under-1 population,” Trends in Amplification, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. M. P. Moeller, “Early intervention and language development in children who are deaf and hard of hearing,” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. E43–E52, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Zimmerman-Philips, M. J. Osberger, and A. M. Robbins, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Advanced Bionics Corporation, Sylmar, Calif, USA, 1997.
  9. R. L. Keenan, J. H. Shapiro, and K. Dawson, “Frequency of anesthetic cardiac arrests in infants: effect of pediatric anesthesiologists,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 433–437, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. P. Morray, J. M. Geiduschek, C. Ramamoorthy et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: initial findings of the pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest (POCA) registry,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 6–14, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Lesinski-Schiedat, A. Illg, R. Heermann, B. Bertram, and T. Lenarz, “Paediatric cochlear implantation in the first and in the second year of life: a comparative study,” Cochlear Implants International, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 146–159, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. A. L. James and B. C. Papsin, “Cochlear implant surgery at 12 months of age or younger,” Laryngoscope, vol. 114, no. 12, pp. 2191–2195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Dettman, D. Pinder, R. J. Briggs, R. C. Dowell, and J. R. Leigh, “Communication development in children who receive the cochlear implant younger than 12 months: risks versus benefits,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 11S–18S, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. D. M. Valencia, F. L. Rimell, B. J. Friedman, M. R. Oblander, and J. Helmbrecht, “Cochlear implantation in infants less than 12 months of age,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 767–773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. R. T. Miyamoto, M. J. Hay-McCutcheon, K. I. Kirk, D. M. Houston, and T. Bergeson-Dana, “Language skills of profoundly deaf children who received cochlear implants under 12 months of age: a preliminary study,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 373–377, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. J. T. Roland Jr., M. Cosetti, K. H. Wang, S. Immerman, and S. B. Waltzman, “Cochlear implantation in the very young child: long-term safety and efficacy,” Laryngoscope, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2205–2210, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. N. L. Cohen and J. T. Roland Jr., “Complications of cochlear implant surgery,” in Cochlear Implants, S. B. Waltzman and J. T. Roland Jr., Eds., pp. 126–132, Thieme, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  18. T. J. Balkany, M. Whitley, Y. Shapira et al., “The temporalis pocket technique for cochlear implantation: an anatomic and clinical study,” Otology & Neurotology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 903–907, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. B. A. Holstad, V. G. Sonneveldt, B. T. Fears et al., “Relation of electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds to behavioral T- and C-levels in children with cochlear implants,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 115–127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. V. Colletti, M. Carner, V. Miorelli, M. Guida, L. Colletti, and F. G. Fiorino, “Cochlear implantation at under 12 months: report on 10 patients,” Laryngoscope, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 445–449, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. R. F. Holt and M. A. Svirsky, “An exploratory look at pediatric cochlear implantation: is earliest always best?” Ear and Hearing, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 492–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. C. W. Turner, L. A. J. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hearing Research, vol. 242, no. 1-2, pp. 164–171, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. D. Ni, R. K. Shepherd, H. L. Seldon, S. Xu, G. M. Clark, and R. E. Millard, “Cochlear pathology following chronic electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. I: normal hearing kittens,” Hearing Research, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 63–81, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Xu, R. K. Shepard, R. E. Milllard, and G. M. Clark, “Chronic electrical stimulation of the auditory system at high stimulus rates: a physiological and histopathological study,” Hearing Research, vol. 105, pp. 1–29, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  25. A. V. Hodges, J. Schloffman, and T. Balkany, “Conservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation,” American Journal of Otology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 179–183, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Von Ilberg, J. Kiefer, J. Tillein et al., “Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system,” ORL, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 334–340, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Gstoettner, J. Kiefer, W.-D. Baumgartner, S. Pok, S. Peters, and O. Adunka, “Hearing preservation in cochlear implantation for electric acoustic stimulation,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 348–352, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Kiefer, M. Pok, O. Adunka et al., “Combined electric and acoustic stimulation of the auditory system: results of a clinical study,” Audiology and Neuro-Otology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 134–144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. C. James, K. Albegger, R. Battmer, S. Burdo, N. Deggouj, O. Deguine et al., “Preservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation: how and why,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 481–491, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Arndt, A. Aschendorff, R. Laszig et al., “Comparison of pseudobinaural hearing to real binaural hearing rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral deafness and tinnitus,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. J. J. Eggermont, “Pathophysiology of tinnitus,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 166, pp. 19–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. L. del Bo and U. Ambrosetti, “Hearing aids for the treatment of tinnitus,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 166, pp. 341–345, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. A. Buechner, M. Brendel, A. Lesinski-Schiedat et al., “Cochlear implantation in unilateral deaf subjects associated with ipsilateral tinnitus,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1381–1385, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. T. Kleinjung, T. Steffens, J. Strutz, and B. Langguth, “Curing tinnitus with a Cochlear Implant in a patient with unilateral sudden deafness: a case report,” Cases Journal, vol. 2, no. 5, article 7462, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  35. P. van de Heyning, K. Vermeire, M. Diebl, P. Nopp, I. Anderson, and D. de Ridder, “Incapacitating unilateral tinnitus in single-sided deafness treated by cochlear implantation,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 117, no. 9, pp. 645–652, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. R. Møller, “Pathophysiology of tinnitus,” Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 249–266, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. L. Marazita, L. M. Ploughman, B. Rawlings, E. Remington, K. S. Arnos, and W. E. Nance, “Genetic epidemiological studies of early-onset deafness in the U.S. school-age population,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 486–491, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Wiley, D. Choo, J. Meinzen-Derr, L. Hilbert, and J. Greinwald, “GJB2 mutations and additional disabilities in a pediatric cochlear implant population,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 493–500, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. E. J. Propst, B. C. Papsin, T. L. Stockley, R. V. Harrison, and K. A. Gordon, “Auditory responses in cochlear implant users with and without GJB2 deafness,” Laryngoscope, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 317–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. I. Casademont, D. Chevrier, F. Denoyelle, C. Petit, and J. L. Guesdon, “A simple and reliable method for the detection of the 30delG mutation of the CX26 gene,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 149–152, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. N. Matsushiro, K. Doi, Y. Fuse et al., “Successful cochlear implantation in prelingual profound deafness resulting from the common 233delC mutation of the GJB2 gene in the Japanese,” Laryngoscope, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 255–261, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. X. Z. Liu, A. Pandya, S. Angeli et al., “Audiological features of GJB2 (connexin 26) deafness,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 361–369, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Mesolella, G. Tranchino, M. Nardone, S. Motta, and V. Galli, “Connexin 26 mutations in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss: speech and hearing rehabilitation,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 995–1005, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A. M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clinical Genetics, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 314–321, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. J. Vivero, K. Fan, S. Angeli, T. J. Balkany, and X. Z. Liu, “Cochlear implantation in common forms of genetic deafness,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1107–1112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. X. Z. Liu, S. I. Angeli, K. Rajput et al., “Cochlear implantation in individuals with Usher type 1 syndrome,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 841–847, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. C. Blanchet, A. F. Roux, C. Hamel et al., “Usher type I syndrome in children: genotype/phenotype correlation and cochlear implant benefits,” Revue de Laryngologie-Otologie, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 137–143, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. Blanchet, A. F. Roux, C. Hamel et al., “Usher type I syndrome in children: genotype/phenotype correlation and cochlear implant benefits,” Revue de Laryngologie-Otologie, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 218–232, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  49. G. Damen, R. J. Pennings, A. F. Snik, and E. A. Mylanus, “Quality of life and cochlear implantation in Usher syndrome type I,” Laryngoscope, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 723–728, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. G. Cortopassi and T. Hutchin, “A molecular and cellular hypothesis for aminoglycoside-induced deafness,” Hearing Research, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. R. Sinnathuray, V. Raut, A. Awa, A. Magee, and J. G. Toner, “A review of cochlear implantation in mitochondrial sensorineural hearing loss,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 418–426, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. H. Huizing and J. C. M. J. De Groot, “Human cochlear pathology in aminoglycoside ototoxicity—a review,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 104, no. 436, pp. 117–125, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Yamasoba, K. Tsukuda, Y. Oka, T. Kobayashi, and K. Kaga, “Cochlear histopathology associated with mitochondrial transfer RNA(Leu(UUR)) gene mutation,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1705–1707, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Usami, S. Abe, J. Akita et al., “Prevalence of mitochondrial gene mutations among hearing impaired patients,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 38–40, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. L. Rosenthal, P. R. Kileny, A. Boerst, and S. A. Telian, “Successful cochlear implantation in a patient with MELAS syndrome,” American Journal of Otology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 187–191, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Y. Pang, C. C. Huang, M. Y. Yen et al., “Molecular epidemiologic study of mitochondrial DNA mutations in patients with mitochon- drial diseases in Taiwan,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 98, pp. 326–334, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  57. T. Yamaguchi, T. Himi, Y. Harabuchi, M. Hamamoto, and A. Kataura, “Cochlear implantation in a patient with mitochondrial disease–Kearns-Sayre syndrome: a case report,” Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 52, pp. 321–323, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Nishizaki, K. Fukushiama, Y. Oda et al., “Cochlear implantation for symptomatic hereditary deafness,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, Supplement, no. 540, pp. 34–37, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. S. Nayak and G. Isaacson, “Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 112, no. 9 I, pp. 817–820, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Watanabe, K. Takeda, B. Ploplis, and M. Tachibana, “Epistatic relationship between Waardenburg syndrome genes MITF and PAX3,” Nature Genetics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 283–286, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. S. Nakashima, I. Sando, H. Takahashi, and Y. Hashida, “Temporal bone histopathologic findings of Waardenburg's syndrome: a case report,” Laryngoscope, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 563–567, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. R. D. Cullen, C. Zdanski, P. Roush et al., “Cochlear implants in Waardenburg syndrome,” Laryngoscope, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1273–1275, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. A. Daneshi, S. Hassanzadeh, and M. Farhadi, “Cochlear implantation in children with Waardenburg syndrome,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 119, no. 9, pp. 719–723, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. Pau, W. P. Gibson, K. Gardner-Berry, and H. Sanli, “Cochlear implantations in children with Waardenburg syndrome: an electrophysiological and psychophysical review,” Cochlear Implants International, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 202–206, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. A. Jervell and F. Lange-Nielsen, “Congenital deaf-mutism, functional heart disease with prolongation of the Q-T interval, and sudden death,” American Heart Journal, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 59–68, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. J. Schwartz, C. Spazzolini, L. Crotti et al., “The Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome: natural history, molecular basis, and clinical outcome,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 783–790, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. N. Neyroud, F. Tesson, I. Denjoy et al., “A novel mutation in the potassium channel gene KVLQT1 causes the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen cardioauditory syndrome,” Nature Genetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 186–189, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. I. Friedmann, G. R. Fraser, and P. Froggatt, “Pathology of the ear in the cardio-auditory syndrome of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen. Report of a third case with an appendix on possible linkage with the Rh blood group locus,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 883–896, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. G. Siem, A. Früh, T. P. Leren, K. Heimdal, E. Teig, and S. Harris, “Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in Norwegian children: aspects around cochlear implantation, hearing, and balance,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 261–269, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Daneshi, M. M. Ghassemi, M. Talee, and S. Hassanzadeh, “Cochlear implantation in children with Jervell, Lange-Nielsen syndrome,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 314–317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. R. M. Stern Jr. and H. S. Colburn, “Theory of binaural interaction based on auditory-nerve data. IV. A model for subjective lateral position,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 127–140, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. D. Brown and T. J. Balkany, “Benefits of bilateral cochlear implantation: a review,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 315–318, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. R. S. Tyler, C. C. Dunn, S. A. Witt, and J. P. Preece, “Update on bilateral cochlear implantation,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 388–393, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. M. Zurek, “A note on onset effects in binaural hearing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 1200–1201, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Litovsky, A. Parkinson, J. Arcaroli, and C. Sammeth, “Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation in adults: a multicenter clinical study,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 714–731, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. B. J. Gantz, R. S. Tyler, J. T. Rubinstein et al., “Binaural cochlear implants placed during the same operation,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 169–180, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. Müller, F. Schon, and J. Helms, “Speech understanding in quiet and noise in bilateral users of the MED-EL COMBI 40/40+ cochlear implant system,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 198–206, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Y. Litovsky, A. Parkinson, and J. Arcaroli, “Spatial hearing and speech intelligibility in bilateral cochlear implant users,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 419–431, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. H. Kuhn-Inacker, W. Shehata-Dieler, J. Muller et al., “Bilateral cochlear implants: away to optimize auditory perception abilities in deaf children?” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 68, pp. 1257–1266, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  80. B. R. Peters, R. Litovsky, A. Parkinson, and J. Lake, “Importance of age and postimplantation experience on speech perception measures in children with sequential bilateral cochlear implants,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 649–657, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. T. Balkany, A. Hodges, F. Telischi et al., “William House Cochlear Implant Study Group: position statement on bilateral cochlear implantation,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 107–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  82. L. G. Potts, M. W. Skinner, R. A. Litovsky, M. J. Strube, and F. Kuk, “Recognition and localization of speech by adult cochlear implant recipients wearing a digital hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing),” Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 353–373, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Q. Summerfield, G. R. Barton, J. Toner et al., “Self-reported benefits from successive bilateral cochlear implantation in post-lingually deafened adults: randomised controlled trial,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 45, supplement 1, pp. S99–S107, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. K. A. Gordon, D. D. E. Wong, and B. C. Papsin, “Cortical function in children receiving bilateral cochlear implants simultaneously or after a period of interimplant delay,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1293–1299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. A. Starr, T. W. Picton, Y. S. Sininger, L. J. Hood, and C. I. Berlin, “Auditory neuropathy,” Brain, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 741–753, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. Rance and E. J. Barker, “Speech perception in children with auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony managed with either hearing aids or cochlear implants,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 179–182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. M. G. Amatuzzi, C. Northrop, M. C. Liberman et al., “Selective inner hair cell loss in premature infants and cochlea pathological patterns from neonatal intensive care unit autopsies,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 629–636, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. E. Buss, R. F. Labadie, C. J. Brown, A. J. Gross, J. H. Grose, and H. C. Pillsbury, “Outcome of cochlear implantation in pediatric auditory neuropathy,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 328–332, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. Rance, D. E. Beer, B. Cone-Wesson et al., “Clinical findings for a group of infants and young children with auditory neuropathy,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 238–252, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. Buss, R. F. Labadie, C. J. Brown, A. J. Gross, J. H. Grose, and H. C. Pillsbury, “Outcome of cochlear implantation in pediatric auditory neuropathy,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 328–332, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. W. P. Gibson and H. Sanli, “Auditory neuropathy: an update,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 102S–106S, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. W. P. R. Gibson and J. M. Graham, “Editorial: 'auditory neuropathy' and cochlear implantation—myths and facts,” Cochlear Implants International, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. H. F. Teagle, P. A. Roush, J. S. Woodard et al., “Cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 325–335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. J. Walton, W. P. R. Gibson, H. Sanli, and K. Prelog, “Predicting cochlear implant outcomes in children with auditory neuropathy,” Otology and Neurotology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 302–309, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. H. J. Neville, D. Bavelier, D. Corina et al., “Cerebral organization for language in deaf and hearing subjects: biological constraints and effects of experience,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 922–929, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. L. Tucci, D. E. Born, and E. W. Rubel, “Changes in spontaneous activity and CNS morphology associated with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss in chickens,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 96, no. 3 I, pp. 343–350, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. T. N. Parks, E. W. Rubel, A. N. Popper, and R. R. Fay, Plasticity of the Auditory System, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  98. T. S. Tierney, F. A. Russell, and D. R. Moore, “Susceptibility of developing cochlear nucleus neurons to deafferentation-induced death abruptly ends just before the onset of hearing,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 378, no. 2, pp. 295–306, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. D. R. Moore, “Trophic influences of excitatory and inhibitory synapses on neurones in the auditory brain stem,” NeuroReport, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 269–272, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. A. Harris, F. Iguchi, A. H. Seidl, D. I. Lurie, and E. W. Rubel, “Afferent deprivation elicits a transcriptional response associated with neuronal survival after a critical period in the mouse cochlear nucleus,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 43, pp. 10990–11002, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  101. J. E. Mossop, M. J. Wilson, D. M. Caspary, and D. R. Moore, “Down-regulation of inhibition following unilateral deafening,” Hearing Research, vol. 147, no. 1-2, pp. 183–187, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. J. Eggermont, “Role of auditory cortex in noise and drug-induced tinnitus,” American Journal of Audiology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. S162–S169, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  103. M. R. Kamke, M. Brown, and D. R. F. Irvine, “Basal forebrain cholinergic input is not essential for lesion-induced plasticity in mature auditory cortex,” Neuron, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 675–686, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  104. R. L. Hyson and E. W. Rubel, “Transneuronal regulation of protein synthesis in the brain-stem auditory system of the chick requires synaptic activation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2835–2845, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. P. A. Leake, O. Stakhovskaya, G. T. Hradek, and A. M. Hetherington, “Factors influencing neurotrophic effects of electrical stimulation in the deafened developing auditory system,” Hearing Research, vol. 242, no. 1-2, pp. 86–99, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  106. D. R. Moore and R. V. Shannon, “Beyond cochlear implants: awakening the deafened brain,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 686–691, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  107. J. B. Fallon, D. R. F. Irvine, and R. K. Shepherd, “Cochlear implants and brain plasticity,” Hearing Research, vol. 238, no. 1-2, pp. 110–117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus