Table 2: Overview of studies performed to protect from aminoglycoside ototoxicity by antioxidants. C: Chicken, CH: Chinchilla, G: Gerbil, GP: Guinea Pig, H: Human, M: Mouse, R: Rat, ZF: Zebrafish; X: in vitro, Y: in vivo; i.m.: intramuscular, i.v.: intravenous, i.p.: intraperitoneal, i.t.: intratympanic, s.c.: subcutaneous, RWM: round window membrane; d: day, h: hour; O: no effect; P/PP/PPP: partial, not significant/partial and statistically significant/complete & statistically significant protection; T/TT/TTT: partial, not significant/partial and statistically significant/complete & statistically significant rescue.

Therapy (dose)Aminoglycoside (dose)SpeciesOutcomeReference

Dihydroxybenzoate (100 mg/kg, 1 or 2 x/d, i.p., 21 or 26 d)Gentamicin (120 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 19 d or 135 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 14 d)GPPP [196]
Deferoxamine (100 mg/kg, 2 x/d, s.c., 28 d)
Dihydroxybenzoate (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, p.o.)
Gentamicin (120 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 19 d)GPPP
PP
[197]
Dihydroxybenzoate (300 mg/kg, 2 x/d, 14-15 d)Kanamycin (400–900 mg/kg, 2 x/d, s.c., 15 d)M, YPP [198]
Aspirin (0.1 or 1.0 mg/mL in drinking water, 8 d)Amikacin (500 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.p., 5 d)R, YPP [199]
Aspirin (  mg/d, p.o., 7 d)Gentamicin (  mg/d, i.v., 7 d)HPP[201]
Aspirin (  g/d, p.o., 14 d)Gentamicin (total 975–986 mg i.v./patient)HPPP[202]
Aspirin (  g/d, p.o., 14 d)Gentamicin (80–160 mg, 2 x/d, i.v., 5–7 d)HPP[203]
NAC (600 mg, 2 x/d, p.o., 22–25 d)Gentamicin (2 mg/kg/d, i.v., avg. 15 d)HPP [210]
D-Met (300 mg/kg/d, i.p., 28 d)Amikacin (200 mg/kg, 1 x/d, 28 d)GP, YPP [211]
D-Met (200 mg/kg, 1-2 x/d, s.c., 19 d)Gentamicin (120 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 19 d)GP, YPP[212]
L-NAME (100  M, 4 h)PP [213]
D-Met (50 mM, 4 h)Gentamicin (2 mg/mL, 4 h)GP, XPP
Leupeptin (1 mM, 4 h)PP
α-LA (100 mg/kg/d, i.m., 15 d)Amikacin (400 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 15 d)GP, YPP[214]
Edaravone (3 mg/kg/d, i.p., 2–14 d)Tobramycin (160 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 14 d)R, YPPP, TTT [226]
Resveratrol (10  M or 100  M, 24 h)Gentamicin (0.4 mM, 24 h)R, XPP[227]
α-Tocopherol (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 14 d)Gentamicin (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m. <14 d)GP, YPP [216]
α-Tocopherol (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 14 d)Gentamicin (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m. <14 d)GP, YPP[215]
α-Tocopherol (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 14 d)Gentamicin (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m. <14 d)GP, YPP [217]
Glutathione (10 mM, 1 h)PP
Dithioerythritol (10 mM, 1 h)PP
Vitamin C (10 mM, 1 h)Gentamicin (1 mM, 1 h)GP, XPP[218]
Trolox (4 mM, 1 h)PP
Phenylene Diamine (10 mM, 1 h)PP
Glutathione (0.6 mL 0.3 M, p.o., 14 d)Gentamicin (100 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 14 d)GP, YPP[228]
Ginkgo biloba (10 mg/kg, 30 min to RWM or  mg/kg i.p.)Gentamicin (5 mg/kg, 45 min to RWM or 5 mg/kg, 24 h to RWM)GP, YP[219]
Danshen (1–20 mg/kg, 2 x/d, s.c., 15 d)Kanamycin (700 mg/kg, 2 x/d, s.c., 15 d)M, YPP [220]
Melatonin (10 mg/L in drinking water p.o., 12 d or 250  g, s.c., 1 x/d, 5–12 d)Gentamicin (160 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 5 d)
Tobramycin (200 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 5 d)
R, YPP[223]
Melatonin (0.4 or 4.0 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.p., 14 d)Amikacin (600 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 14 d)R, YP (0,4 mg)[221]
Melatonin (0.3 l/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 17 d)Gentamicin (120 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 17 d)GP, X + YPP[222]
Melatonin (10, 50, 100  M, 1–7 d)Gentamicin (1 mM, 48 h)R, XPP[175]
M40403 (30  M, 24 h)Gentamicin (0.5 or 1 mM, 24 h)M, XPP[225]
Cu/Zn SOD, transgenicKanamycin (400 mg/kg, s.c., 10 d)M, YPP[209]
Cu/Zn SOD, transgenic
Mn SOD, transgenic
Kanamycin (250 mg/kg, s.c., single dose)
Ethacrynic Acid (40 mg/kg, i.v., single dose)
GP, YO (Cu/Zn)
PP (Mn)
[224]