Table 3: Overview of studies with alternative strategies to protect from aminoglycoside ototoxicity. C: Chicken, CH: Chinchilla, G: Gerbil, GP: Guinea Pig, M: Mouse, R: Rat, X: in vitro, Y: in vivo; i.m.: intramuscular, i.v.: intravenous, i.p.: intraperitoneal, i.t.: intratympanic, s.c.: subcutaneous; d: day, h: hour, q12 h: every 12 h; O: no effect; P/PP/PPP: partial, not significant/partial and statistically significant/complete and statistically significant protection.

Therapy (dose)Aminoglycoside (dose)SpeciesOutcomeReference

BDNF (10 ng/mL, 4 h)Gentamicin (2 mg/mL, 4 h)GP, XPP[213]
Dizocilpine (1 mg/kg/d, osmotic pump, 14 d)
Ifenprodil (10 mg/kg/d, osmotic pump, 14 d)
Neomycin (50 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 14 d) or
Kanamycin (250 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 21 d)
GP, YPP
PP
[233]
Dizocilpine (1 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c.,10 d)Streptomycin (400 mg/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 10 d)R, YPP[234]
CTNF (0.44 g/kg, 1 x/d, s.c., 30 d)Gentamicin (80 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 30 d)GP, YPP[249]
BDNF (1  g, pellet in semicircular canal, with AG or 1 week later, over 1–8 weeks)Gentamicin (50  g, pellet in semicircular canal, over 1–8 weeks)CH, YP
TT
[246]
BDNF (100  g/mL, local, pump @ 0.25  L/h, 30 d)
NT-3 (100  g/mL, local, pump @ 0.25  L/h, 30 d)
Kanamycin (400 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.p., 5 d)GP, YO (BDNF)
PP (NT-3)
[248]
L-NAME (100  M, 8 h)
BDNF (10 ng/mL, 8 h)
Gentamicin (2 mg/mL, 8 h)GP, XPP
PP
[247]
Isosorbide (1 mM, 8 h)Gentamicin (2 mg/mL, 8 h)GP, XPP[255]
MK 801 (1 mg/kg, 3 x before pump implantation) NT-3 (local in pump @ 300 ng/h over 14 d)Amikacin (300 mM, local pump @ 5  L/h, 24 h)GP, YP (MK 801)
PP (MK + NT)
[256]
GDNF (10  M, 72–96 h)Neomycin (0.6 mM, 72 h)R, XP (X) [250]
GDNF (50 ng/mL, local pump @ 0.5  L/h or single dose 0.1 mg, i.t.)Kanamycin (200 mg/kg, s.c., single dose) + Ethacrynic Acid (40 mg/kg, i.v., single dose)GP, YPP (Y)
GDNF + TGF-1, transgenicKanamycin (150 mg/kg, s.c., single dose) + Ethacrynic Acid (40 mg/kg, i.v., single dose)GP, YPP[257]
GDNF, transgenicGentamicin (8 mg, i.t., single dose)GP, YPP[258]
GDNF, transgenicKanamycin (200 mg/kg, s.c., single dose) + Ethacrynic Acid (40 mg/kg, i.v., single dose)GP, YPP[259]
Gentamicin (10 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 30 d)Gentamicin (160 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 10 d)GP, YPP[230]
Amikacin (20 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 30 d)Amikacin (400 mg/kg, 1 x/d, i.m., 10 d)GP, YPP[231]
2 Octave-band noise (81 dB SPL for 21 d)Gentamicin (445  g, local to RWM over 14 d)G, YP[232]
Ethacrynic Acid (40 mg/kg, i.v., single dose, 12–18 h )Gentamicin (125 mg/kg, 1–20 injections q12h, i.m.)GP, YPP[252]