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International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2012, Article ID 724214, 8 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Single-Word Production for Children under Three Years of Age: Comparison of Children with and without Cleft Palate

1Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, Clinical and Rehabilitative Health Sciences, East Tennessee State University, P.O. Box 70282, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
2Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, Center of Excellence in Early Childhood Learning and Development, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
3Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, 1417 NE 42nd Street, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
4Department of Special Education, Vanderbilt University, 110 Magnolia Circle, Nashville, TN 37201, USA

Received 13 August 2011; Accepted 2 January 2012

Academic Editor: Steven Goudy

Copyright © 2012 Nancy J. Scherer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. This study reports comparative phonological assessment results for children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) to typically developing peers using an evaluation tool for early phonological skills. Methods. Children without clefts (NC = noncleft) and 24 children with CLP, ages of 18–36 months, were evaluated using the Profile of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPSs) [1]. Children interacted with toy manipulatives to elicit a representative sample of target English consonants and syllable structures that are typically acquired by children between 18 and 27 months of age. Results. Results revealed significant differences between the two groups with regard to measures of consonant inventory, place of articulation, manner of production, accuracy, and error patterns. Syllable structure did not indicate differences, with the exception of initial consonant clusters. Conclusions. findings provide support for PEEPS as a viable option for single-word assessment of children with CLP prior to 3 years of age.