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International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 429469, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/429469
Research Article

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with Tinnitus

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11175 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
3Loma Linda Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 11201 Benton Street, Loma Linda, CA 92357, USA

Received 21 October 2014; Accepted 19 December 2014

Academic Editor: Leonard P. Rybak

Copyright © 2015 Yuan F. Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. Tinnitus and sleep disturbance are prevalent in veterans, and a better understanding of their relationship can help with tinnitus treatment. Materials and Methods. Retrospective chart review of 94 veterans seen in audiology clinic between 2010 and 2013 is presented. Results. The mean age was 62 years, and 93 of 94 veterans were males. The majority (96%) had hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the ESS for sleep disorder was 97% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Veterans with a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score ≥38 had significantly higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores compared to those with THI score <38 (). The former had a significantly higher incidence of PTSD, anxiety, and sleep disorder. A subgroup of patients had normal sleep despite rising THI scores. Bilateral tinnitus, vertigo, and anxiety were found to be predictors of sleep disturbance. Conclusions. The ESS can be used as a tool in the initial assessment of sleep disorders in veterans with tinnitus. Higher tinnitus handicap severity is significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance. Optimal management of tinnitus may require concomitant treatment of sleep disorder, PTSD, anxiety, and depression.