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International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2016, Article ID 2718482, 8 pages
Research Article

The Reliability of Pharyngeal High Resolution Manometry with Impedance for Derivation of Measures of Swallowing Function in Healthy Volunteers

1Department of Gastroenterology, Flinders Medical Centre and School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
2Human Physiology, Medical Science and Technology, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
3Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital and School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
4Swallowing Rehabilitation Research Laboratory, The University of Canterbury Rose Centre for Stroke Recovery and Research, Christchurch, New Zealand
5Discipline of Speech Pathology & Audiology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia

Received 21 January 2016; Revised 6 March 2016; Accepted 24 March 2016

Academic Editor: Roberto O. Dantas

Copyright © 2016 Taher I. Omari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. We evaluated the intra- and interrater agreement and test-retest reliability of analyst derivation of swallow function variables based on repeated high resolution manometry with impedance measurements. Methods. Five subjects swallowed  mL saline on two occasions one week apart producing a database of 100 swallows. Swallows were repeat-analysed by six observers using software. Swallow variables were indicative of contractility, intrabolus pressure, and flow timing. Results. The average intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for intra- and interrater comparisons of all variable means showed substantial to excellent agreement (intrarater ICC 0.85–1.00; mean interrater ICC 0.77–1.00). Test-retest results were less reliable. ICC for test-retest comparisons ranged from slight to excellent depending on the class of variable. Contractility variables differed most in terms of test-retest reliability. Amongst contractility variables, UES basal pressure showed excellent test-retest agreement (mean ICC 0.94), measures of UES postrelaxation contractile pressure showed moderate to substantial test-retest agreement (mean Interrater ICC 0.47–0.67), and test-retest agreement of pharyngeal contractile pressure ranged from slight to substantial (mean Interrater ICC 0.15–0.61). Conclusions. Test-retest reliability of HRIM measures depends on the class of variable. Measures of bolus distension pressure and flow timing appear to be more test-retest reliable than measures of contractility.