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International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2018, Article ID 2681304, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2681304
Review Article

Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Group A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococcal Infection: An Indication for Tonsillectomy? A Review of the Literature

1University Hospital North Midlands, Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK
2Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Amarkumar Dhirajlal Rajgor; moc.liamg@rogjarard

Received 13 August 2017; Revised 20 November 2017; Accepted 3 December 2017; Published 21 February 2018

Academic Editor: Sergio Motta

Copyright © 2018 Amarkumar Dhirajlal Rajgor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) is the acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms following group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. The aetiology remains elusive. However, with group A streptococcus being the most common bacterial cause of tonsillitis, surgical intervention in the form of tonsillectomy has often been considered as a potential therapy. Methods. A MEDLINE® search was undertaken using keywords “PANDAS” or “paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus” combined with “tonsillectomy”. Results. Six case reports and 3 case series met the inclusion criteria. Demesh et al. (case series) reported a dramatic reduction in neuropsychiatric symptom severity in the patient cohort undergoing tonsillectomy. Two case series suggest that there is no association between tonsillectomy and resolution of PANDAS. Conclusion. Due to the lack of uniform data and sporadic reports, tonsillectomy should be carefully adopted for the treatment of this disorder. In particular, tonsillectomies/adenoidectomies to alleviate neuropsychiatric symptoms should be avoided until more definitive evidence is at our disposal. This review highlights the importance of a potential collaborative prospective study.