Quality of Life and Morbidity after Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgeries Using the Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT): A Tertiary Hospital ExperienceRead the full article
International Journal of Otolaryngology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.
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Melatonin Exerts Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Neuromodulatory Effects That Could Potentially Be Useful in the Treatment of Vertigo
The acute phase of vertigo involves multiple neurotransmitters, inflammatory mediators, and products of oxidative stress. The vestibular pathway has multiple melatonin receptors distributed along its path, both centrally and peripherally. In addition, melatonin has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against factors related to vertigo, such as Bax/caspases, interleukins, and chemokines. Likewise, it exerts central GABAergic, antidopaminergic, and anti-migraine functions and regulates sympathetic activity in a similar way to the drugs classically used in acute vestibular crisis. In this review, the role of melatonin as a potential treatment of the acute phase of vertigo is discussed.
Proposal of New Key Step in Lateral Approach Thyroidectomy in Light of Comparison of Surgical Outcomes of Medial versus Lateral Approach Thyroidectomy: A Randomised Controlled Study
Objective. Thyroid surgery has travelled a long path, from a surgery which once was considered deemed to fail and even led to death, to the current time when newer techniques are being tested to make the incision smaller and smaller. The aim of our study is to give a precise detailed stepwise description of medial and lateral surgical approach with the anatomical basis and to compare their feasibility and safety. Methods. 104 cases presenting with thyroid swelling in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Assam Medical College Dibrugarh from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, were selected and randomisation was done based on day of admission from OPD. Basic demographic data, preoperative diagnosis, operative time, blood loss, need for transection of strap muscles, and complications were recorded. Result. The distribution of thyroid cases according to age ranged from 17 to 81 years. The prevalence of thyroid disorders was the highest (37.5%) in the age group of 31–40 yrs. Of a total of 104 thyroid cases, 49 were colloid goitre, 24 were multinodular goitre, 9 were follicular neoplasm category 4, 4 were papillary thyroid carcinoma, 2 were follicular neoplasm category 3, and 3 were follicular neoplasm category 5. Conclusion. Out of the two approaches, lateral approach thyroidectomy showed better results with fewer complications. A single structure (superior belly of omohyoid) can be used as a guide to preserving all vital structures related to the thyroid gland.
Does HPV Subtype Predict Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancers?
Background. Recently, reanalysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas study demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in head and neck cancers other than HPV-16 have inferior survival to HPV-16-positive tumors. We aimed to examine the association of HPV subtypes and survival in a large cohort of patient samples from our institution. Methods. Fresh frozen primary site biopsy samples were collected either in clinic or at the time of surgery. Patient demographic, staging, and survival data were also collected. Tumors were tested for HPV subtypes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results. 280 patient biopsy samples were collected between 2011 and 2017. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 61.9 ± 11.1 years and most patients (78%) were male. The majority of cancers were of the oral cavity (60%) or oropharynx (25%) and 30% had HPV-positive disease. Median follow-up was 3.76 years and 96/280 patients (34%) developed recurrences. Patients with p16-positive versus negative disease had significantly improved 5-year overall survival (OS, 77.6% vs. 53.3%; ) and progression-free survival (PFS, 67.3% vs. 41.0%, ). Similarly improved 5-year OS and PFS were observed for patients with HPV-positive versus negative disease (65.0% vs. 55.0%, ; 53.3% vs. 43.2%, , resp.). Patients with HPV-16 compared to other HPV diseases had worse 5-year OS and PFS (62.1% vs. 88.9%, ; 49.0% vs. 88.9%, , resp.). Conclusions. In contrast to the data derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas, patients with HPV-16 tumors trended towards decreased PFS and OS compared with tumors driven by other HPV genotypes. Further larger multi-institutional studies are necessary to understand the relationship between other HPV genotypes and survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Assessing the Clinical Value of Performing CT Scan before Rhinoplasty Surgery
Introduction. The endonasal mucosal or anatomic pathologies could lead to poor functional results and dissatisfaction after rhinoplasty. Although computed tomography (CT) scan has become an integral part of the diagnostic paradigm for patients with pathologies of the paranasal sinuses, the use of CT scan for preoperative evaluation of patients seeking rhinoplasty is up for debate. Our aim in this study was to compare the efficacy of CT scan in diagnosing nasal pathologies with other evaluating tools in patients undergoing rhinoplasty. Design. In this randomized controlled trial study, 74 consecutive patients seeking cosmetic rhinoplasty referred to otorhinolaryngology clinic were randomly assigned into three groups based on the perioperative evaluation method: the CT group, the nasal endoscopy group, and the control group (anterior rhinoscopy only). Surgical planning was made according to perioperative findings, and the identified endonasal pathologies were corrected during the surgery. The functional and aesthetic outcomes of the rhinoplasty were assessed by Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) tools before surgery and at 12-month follow-up. Results. All outcome measures improved significantly in either group toward one year after rhinoplasty (all with value <0.05). Subjects in the CT group demonstrated greater improvement in the NOSE, VAS, and ROE compared to other two groups (NOSE: value = 0.17; VAS: value = 0.024; ROE: value = 0.042). Conclusions. According to our study, perioperative CT is associated with greater patients’ satisfaction and quality of life after rhinoplasty compared to either nasal endoscopy or anterior rhinoscopy. A preoperative CT scan may improve the outcomes of rhinoplasty.
Recurrence Pattern and Complication Rate of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis: A 10-Year Tertiary Center Experience
Background. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive form of highly recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis. Despite the advancement in medical and surgical strategies, recurrence in AFRS in general poses another challenging problem with reported incidence that eventually can reach more than 60%. Recognition and understanding the pattern of disease recurrence will lead to greater understanding of the disease response in our population. Method. A retrospective cohort study was performed in King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery from the period of January 2006 to December 2016 were reviewed. Results. 28 patients were found to have AFRS based on clinical, radiological, and microscopic examination suggestive of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Among these patients, 53% of them were female and 46% were male. The age ranged from 13 to 55 years, with a mean age of 31.57 years. 28.57% of the patients presented with recurrent allergic fungal sinusitis. The duration between the surgery and symptoms recurrence was around one year. Male and female patients had similar recurrence rate (50%). At first visit, 95% of the patients with nonrecurrent disease presented with nasal obstruction compared to 87.5% of the patients with recurrent disease. On the other hand, patients with recurrent disease had more nasal discharge (87.5%), postnasal drip (37.5%), facial pressure/pain (50%), headache (50%), nasal polyposis (87.5%), hypertrophy of inferior turbinate (37.5%), and proptosis (12.5%). Nasal obstruction (87.5%) and nasal polyps (87.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms for the disease recurrence. The pattern of disease recurrence in the previously unilateral disease was 18% ipsilateral and 27% bilateral. For the patients who had bilateral disease formerly, 17% (n = 3) of them had recurrent bilateral disease. Conclusion. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a distinct clinical entity. A high recurrence rate is a pathognomonic feature of the disease, despite all the development in medical and surgical trials. This study demonstrated that recurrence rate is lower in our population. However, more studies with a greater number of patients are needed in the future to clearly recognize the pattern of recurrence in patients with AFRS.
Subglottic Stenosis in Children: Preliminary Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital
Introduction. This retrospective study describes our experience in the evaluation and management of infants with subglottic stenosis. Materials and Methods. The study included 10 patients aged between 1 wk and 18 months with 6 cases having congenital subglottic stenosis and 4 cases having acquired subglottic stenosis. Results. 6 patients had grade I, 3 patients had grade II, and 1 patient had grade III subglottic stenosis. Tracheostomy was required in 4 patients at the time of presentation. 7 patients were treated successfully with Bougie dilation followed by topical application of mitomycin, whereas 1 patient who failed to serial dilation needed open reconstructive procedure. Laser excision of the anterior subglottic web was performed in one patient. Another patient with underlying cerebral palsy could not be operated upon and was managed with tracheostomy. Conclusion. Subglottic stenosis may be effectively man-aged with endoscopic surgical techniques, although the number of such sittings required varies with the type and severity of stenosis. Open surgical procedures need to be individualised as per the needs of the patient only after all the other endoscopic possibilities have been exhausted.