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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2009, Article ID 294042, 22 pages
Review Article

Doping of TiO2 Polymorphs for Altered Optical and Photocatalytic Properties

1Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute, Hampton, VA, USA
3School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China

Received 25 March 2009; Revised 17 July 2009; Accepted 13 September 2009

Academic Editor: Franca Morazzoni

Copyright © 2009 Xiliang Nie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper reviews recent investigations of the influence of dopants on the optical properties of TiO2 polymorphs. The common undoped polymorphs of TiO2 are discussed and compared. The results of recent doping efforts are tabulated, and discussed in the context of doping by elements of the same chemical group. Dopant effects on the band gap and photocatalytic activity are interpreted with reference to a simple qualitative picture of the TiO2 electronic structure, which is supported with first-principles calculations.