A New Configuration of Vertically Connecting Solar Cells: Solar TreeRead the full article
International Journal of Photoenergy publishes focused on all areas of photoenergy, including photochemistry and solar energy utilization.
Chief Editor, Giulia Grancini, is based at the University of Pavia, Italy. Her current research work aims at solving the stability and toxicity issues of developing multi-dimensional hybrid interfaces as lego-bricks for a new efficient, stable, and environmentally-friendly solar technology.
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Effect of Chemical and Physical Parameters on the Electrical Outputs of Cu2ZnFeSnS4-Based Solar Cells by wxAMPS
Cu2ZnFeSnS4-based solar cells with different mole fractions of iron have been analyzed using numerical simulations in this study. The analysis deals with the effect of the iron content on the overall electrical performance of solar cells. Results revealed that the Voc is affected by the increase of the iron content even if it improves the other parameters. We found that the CZFTS solar cell with a mole fraction of iron equal to 1 (CFTS) showed the best results in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE). Moreover, variations of several structural and physical parameters of the buffer CdS and the best absorber CFTS on the overall electrical characteristics of the cell were investigated. Simulations showed promising results with PCE of 20.35%, Jsc of 26.09 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.93 V, and FF of 83.93%. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the design and manufacture of high-efficiency CZFTS solar cells.
Elastic, Mechanical, and Phonon Behavior of Orpiment Arsenic Trisulfide under Pressure
Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) has been found to be an excellent glass former at high temperature and pressure. However, there is still some scarcity for the elastic and phonon behavior of the orpiment phase. By using the Dreiding force field of the geometry optimization computations, we investigated the elastic constants, mechanical moduli, and the phonon dispersion of orpiment As2S3 under the pressure from 0 to 5 GPa. Some results of the elastic parameters of orpiment-As2S3 at 0 GPa are consistent with the experimental data. The phonon dispersions for orpiment As2S3 under pressure are also reasonable with previous calculations.
Outdoor Performance Assessment of New and Old Photovoltaic Panel Technologies Using a Designed Multi-Photovoltaic Panel Power Measurement System
This paper presents a new multi-photovoltaic panel measurement and analysis system (PPMAS) developed for measurement of atmospheric parameters and generated power of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Designed system presented with an experimental study evaluates performance of four new and four 5-year-old PV panel technologies which are based on polycrystalline (Poly), monocrystalline (Mono), copper indium selenide (CIS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) in real time, under same atmospheric conditions. The PPMAS system with the PV panels is installed in Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara Province, in Turkey. The designed PPMAS consists of three different subsystems which are (1) photovoltaic panel measurement subsystem (PPMS), (2) meteorology measurement subsystem (MMS), and (3) data acquisition subsystem (DAS). PPMS is used to measure the power generation for PV panels. MMS involves different types of sensors, and it is designed to determine atmospheric conditions including wind speed, wind direction, outdoor temperature, humidity, ambient light, and panel temperatures. The measured values by PPMS and MMS are stored in a database using DAS subsystem. In order to improve the measurement accuracy, PPMS and MMS are calibrated. This study also focuses on outdoor testing performances of four new and four 5-year-old PV panels. Average monthly panel efficiencies are estimated as 8.46%, 8.11%, 5.65%, and 3.88% for new Mono, new Poly, new CIS, and new CdTe PV panels, respectively. Moreover, average monthly panel efficiencies of old panels are calculated as 8.22%, 7.85%, 5.35%, and 3.63% in the same order. Test results obtained from the experimental system are also statistically examined and discussed to analyze the performance of PV panels in terms of monthly panel efficiencies.
Enhancing the Performance of the Standalone Rooftop SPV Module during Peak Solar Irradiance and Ambient Temperature by the Active Cooling of the Rear Surface with Spraying Water and the Front Surface with Overflowing Water
The usage of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) module to meet the power demands, especially in residential and office buildings, is inevitable in forthcoming years. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the possibility of improving the performance of the standalone rooftop SPV module used in the residential and office buildings during peak solar irradiance and ambient temperature with active cooling of the rear surface alone by spraying water and the front surface alone by water overflowing over it and cooling of the rear and the front surfaces simultaneously. The underneath of the SPV module is attached with a tray with a length of 1580 mm, a width of 640 mm, and a depth of 100 mm. It is filled with 40-70 litres of water. Accouters are made for water overflowing from the tube over the front surface of the module and cooling of the rear surface by spraying water. The rear surface cooling, front surface cooling, and simultaneous cooling of both the surfaces reduce the average operating temperature of the module by 15.52°C (maximum 18.6°C), 24.29°C (maximum 28.7°C), and 28.52°C (maximum 34.7°C), respectively. This temperature reduction leads to the increase in the power output of the 150 W module by 10.70 W, 18.48 W, and 20.56 W and percentage increase in efficiency by 8.778%, 15.278%, and 16.895% for rear, front, and simultaneous cooling of surfaces, respectively. The net power output of the module with the front surface cooling by overflowing (0.9 litre/min) water is higher, i.e., 15.88 W/150 W, and produces installation capacity of 0.4234 watt-hour (Wh) of more energy per watt during the test period 10 AM to 2 PM in a day. The recommended cooling methods eliminate the need for freshwater and separate arrangements to dissipate the heat carried by the circulated water and reduced the power required and quantity of water circulated. They also reduced the heat loads of the room by the shadow effect and by maintaining the tray water above the roof.
A Status Review on Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells
Photovoltaics has become a significant branch of next-generation sustainable energy production. Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 (copper-zinc-tin-(sulfur, selenium) or CZTS(Se)) is considered one of the most promising, earth-abundant, and nontoxic candidates for solar energy generation over the last decade. However, shallow phase stability of the quaternary phase and the presence of various secondary phases and defects are the main hindrances in achieving the target device performance. This paper summarizes various approaches to synthesize the CZTS absorber layer and the CdS -type material layer. Besides, different CZTS solar cell device structures, as well as a comprehensive review of secondary phases and defects, have been illustrated and discussed. At last, this review is intended to highlight the current challenges and prospects of CZTS solar cells.
Performance Analysis of Ti-Doped In2O3 Thin Films Prepared by Various Doping Concentrations Using RF Magnetron Sputtering for Light-Emitting Device
The influences of doping amounts of TiO2 on the structure and electrical properties of In2O3 films were experimentally studied. In this study, titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) conductions were deposited on glass substrate by the dual-target-type radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFS) system under different conditions of Ti-doped In2O3 targets, from Ti-0.5 wt% to Ti-5.0 wt%, along with 10 mTorr and 300 W pressure of RF power control that was used as a cost-effective transparent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) cell. From this process, the correlation between structural, optical, and electrical properties is reported. It was found that the best Ω cm of resistivity was from Ti-2.5 wt% with the highest carrier concentration (1.15 × 1021 cm-3), Hall mobility (46.03 cm2/V·s), relatively transmittance (82%), and ECL efficiency (0.43 lm·W-1) with well crystalline structured and smooth morphology. As a result, researchers can be responsible for preparing ITiO thin films with significantly improved microstructure and light intensity performance for the effectiveness of the display devices, as well as its simple process and high performance.