Thermomechanical Fatigue Behavior of Spray-Deposited SiCp/Al-Si Composite Applied in the High-Speed Railway Brake DiscRead the full article
International Journal of Photoenergy publishes focused on all areas of photoenergy, including photochemistry and solar energy utilization.
International Journal of Photoenergy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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A New MPPT Technique for Fast and Efficient Tracking under Fast Varying Solar Irradiation and Load Resistance
The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a strategy that allows imposing the PV array operation point on the maximum power point (MPP) or close to it under any environmental condition. The conventional incremental conductance (INC) algorithm is the most popular algorithm. But due to the fixed step size, its response speed is low under the rapid change of the solar irradiation level or load resistance. In this paper, a new MPPT technique is proposed to enhance the response speed. It consists of two stages: (1) the computing stage and (2) the regulating stage. The computing stage includes the coarse positioning operation and fine positioning operation. And an initial value of the duty cycle is generated in the computing stage, according to the characteristics of the DC-DC converter and the characteristics of the curve. The regulating stage regulates the duty cycle of the DC-DC converter with a small step size, which can improve the tracking efficiency. And the computing stage can enhance the response speed. A simulation comparison of the proposed MPPT technique with other techniques is carried out in MATLAB/Simulink under different scenarios. The simulation results reveal that the response of the proposed algorithm is 4.6 times faster than that of the INC under these scenarios, and the proposed algorithm has higher efficiency.
Investigation to Improve the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics Using Laser-Textured Copper-Grooved Surfaces
Improving the performance of pool boiling with critical heat flux of pool boiling and enhancing the coefficient of heat transfer through surface modification technique have gained a lot of attention. These surface modifications can be done at different scales using various techniques. However, along with the performance improvement, the durability and stability of the surface modification are very crucial. Laser machining is an attractive option in this aspect and is gaining a lot of attention. In the present experimentation research work, pool boiling attributed performance of copper-grooved surfaces obtained through picosecond laser machining method is investigated. The performance of the modified surfaces was compared with the plain surface serving as reference. In this, three square grooved patterns with the same pitch (100 μm) and width (100 μm) but different depths (30, 70, and 100 μm) were investigated. Different depths were obtained by varying the scanning speed of the laser machine. In addition to the microchannel effect, the grain structuring during the laser machining process creates additional nucleation sites which has proven its effectiveness in improving the pool boiling performance. In all aspects, the pool boiling performance of the grooved laser-textured surface has showed increased surface characterisation as compared with the surface of copper.
E. coli Inactivation Kinetics Modeling in a Taylor-Couette UV Disinfection Reactor
A simple model was developed to predict the survival behavior of E. coli subjected to UV disinfection in a Taylor-Couette reactor. The model includes the CFD evaluation of the counterrotating toroidal vortices developed within the annular space of two coaxial cylinders. The UV lamp was located within the diameter of the internal rotating cylinder. The residence time of the bacteria near the UV lamp is, therefore, a function of both the size of the vortex and its angular velocity. The effect of angular velocity on the formation of counterrotating toroidal vortices and their impact on the kinetics of UV microbial inactivation was experimentally evaluated. The kinetics of microbial inactivation follow an apparent first-order kinetic equation between 300 and 2000 revolutions per minute. Therefore, in this range of angular velocities, a set of values (indirectly taking into account the hydrodynamic pattern and UV irradiance) was obtained for a given concentration of bacteria. Then, the set of values was correlated with the range of angular velocities applied using the polynomial equation. A value can be obtained for an unknown angular velocity through the polynomial equation. Therefore, a simulation curve of microbial inactivation can be obtained from the first-order kinetic equation. The efficiency of bacteria removal improves depending on the angular velocity applied. A good agreement is observed between the simulation of the survival behavior of the microorganisms subjected to UV disinfection with the experimental data.
Impact of Solar Panel Orientation on the Integration of Solar Energy in Low-Voltage Distribution Grids
In Belgium, and many other countries, rooftop solar panels are becoming a ubiquitous form of decentralised energy production. The increasing share of these distributed installations however imposes many challenges on the operators of the low-voltage distribution grid. They must keep the voltage levels and voltage balance on their grids in check and are often regulatory required to provide sufficient reception capacity for new power producing installations. By placing solar panels in different inclinations and azimuth angles, power production profiles can possibly be shifted to align more with residential power consumption profiles. In this article, it is investigated if the orientation of solar panels can have a mitigating impact on the integration problems on residential low voltage distribution grids. An improved simulation model of a solar panel installation is constructed, which is used to simulate the impact on a residential distribution grid. To stay as close to real-life conditions as possible, real irradiation data and a model of an existing grid are used. Both the developed model as the results on grid impact are evaluated.
Advances in Two-Dimensional MXenes for Nitrogen Electrocatalytic Reduction to Ammonia
As an important chemical raw material, ammonia is mainly produced by the traditional Haber-Bosch process, which has certain limitations such as high energy consumption, high safety responsibility, and severe pollution, thereby having negative impacts on ecosystem. The synthesis of ammonia from dinitrogen at ambient temperature and pressure is one of the most attractive topics in the field of chemistry. As a new two-dimensional nanomaterial, MXene has excellent electrochemical properties and is a potential catalytic material for electrocatalytic nitrogen fixation. In this review, we firstly introduce the crystal, electronic structures of two-dimensional MXenes and summarize the synthesis methods, N2 reduction, and simulation computation, as well as have insight into the challenges of MXenes, which shed light on the development of highly efficient MXene-based electrocatalysts in the reduction of N2 to ammonia.
L vs. LCL Filter for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter: A Reliability Study
The increasing use of photovoltaic systems entails the use of new technologies to improve the efficiency and power quality of the grid. System performance is constantly increasing, but its reliability decreases due to factors such as the uncontrolled operation, the quality of the design and quantity of components, and the use of nonlinear loads that may lead to distortion in the signal, which directly affects the life of the system globally. This article presents an analysis of the reliability of a single-phase full-bridge inverter for active power injection into the grid, which considers the inverter stage with its coupling stage. A comparison between an L filter and an LCL filter, which comprise the coupling stage, is made. Reliability prediction is based on metrics, failure rate, mean time between failures, and total harmonic distortion. The analysis and numerical simulation are performed. Finally, filter considerations are suggested to extend the reliability of the inverter in a photovoltaic system.