Variable Load Demand Scheme for Hybrid AC/DC NanogridRead the full article
International Journal of Photoenergy publishes focused on all areas of photoenergy, including photochemistry and solar energy utilization.
Chief Editor, Giulia Grancini, is based at the University of Pavia, Italy. Her current research work aims at solving the stability and toxicity issues of developing multi-dimensional hybrid interfaces as lego-bricks for a new efficient, stable, and environmentally-friendly solar technology.
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Synthesis of TiO2/Pd and TiO2/PdO Hollow Spheres and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity
A series of TiO2, TiO2/Pd, and TiO2/PdO hollow sphere photocatalysts was successfully prepared via a combination of hydrothermal, sol-immobilization, and calcination methods. The structure and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Telleranalysis, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda measurement, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalysis efficiencies of all samples were evaluated through the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that TiO2/PdO demonstrated a higher photocatalytic activity (the photocatalytic degradation efficiency could reach up to 100% within 40 min) than the other samples and could maintain a stable photocatalytic degradation efficiency for at least four cycles. Finally, after using different scavengers, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were identified as the primary active species for the effectiveness of the TiO2/PdO photocatalyst.
Improvement in the Flux Uniformity of the Solar Dish Concentrator System through a Concave Quartz Window
A nonuniform and high-strength heat flux load would reduce the working efficiency, safety, and in-service life of a cavity receiver. Four types of concave quartz windows, including conical, spherical, sinusoidal, and hyperbolic tangent, were proposed to be used in the cylindrical cavity receiver of a solar dish concentrator system, which can improve the flux uniformity and reduce the peak concentration ratio of the receiver. For each concave quartz window, 36 structural schemes were offered. Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the results showed that the nonuniformity coefficient of the receiver was 0.68 and the peak concentration ratio was 1320.21 by using a plane quartz window. At the same time, when the receiver is in the best optical performance, it is the receiver with sinusoidal, conical, spherical, and hyperbolic tangent quartz windows, respectively. The optical efficiency of the receiver with the above four types of quartz windows was basically the same as that of the receiver with the plane quartz window, but their nonuniformity coefficients were reduced to 0.31, 0.35, 0.36, and 0.39, respectively, and the peak concentration ratio was reduced to 806.82, 841.31, 853.23, and 875.89, respectively. Obviously, the concave quartz window was better than the plane quartz window in improving the flux uniformity. Finally, a further study on the sinusoidal quartz window scheme of all of the above optimal parameter schemes showed that when the installation position of the receiver relative to the dish concentrator was changed, the flux uniformity of the receiver could continue to improve. When the surface absorptivity of the receiver was reduced, the optical efficiency would be reduced. For the parabolic dish concentrator with different focal distance, the concave quartz window can also improve the uniformity of the flux distribution of the cylindrical cavity receiver.
Simplified Modeling and Simulation of Electricity Production from a Dish/Stirling System
This work is part of the dynamic of proposing a solution to the problem of access to electricity in Chad, which has a rate of access to electricity of 3%. N’Djamena has significant solar potential that can be harnessed to generate electricity. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the performances of the Dish/Stirling system with the purpose of producing electricity, based on a mathematical model taking into account each of the subparts of the system (concentrator, solar cavity receiver, and Stirling engine). Hydrogen is preferred to helium as the working fluid for operating the Stirling engine at high temperatures. This coupled model made it possible to estimate the monthly average of the electric power produced by this modular system and also its overall solar electricity yield.
Intelligent Control of a Photovoltaic Generator for Charging and Discharging Battery Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
This paper presents a method of intelligent control of a photovoltaic generator (PVG) connected to a load and a battery. The system consists of charging and discharging a battery. An intelligent algorithm based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is presented in this work. It performs two separate tasks simultaneously. First, it is used as a PVG Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) command. This same algorithm is used secondly for protecting the battery against deep charges and discharges. A regulation of the DC bus voltage is also carried out by means of a PI corrector for a good supply of the load. The simulation results under MATLAB/Simulink show that the method proposed in this work allows the PV system to function normally by charging and discharging the battery whatever the weather conditions.
Study on Tensile Creep Behavior of 12Cr1MoV Alloy Steel under High-Temperature Alkali Metal Salt Environment for Solar Thermal Power Generation
The heat exchange tubes of solar thermal power generation work in molten salt environment with periodic temperature change. In order to reveal the tensile creep behavior of 12Cr1MoV pipeline steel under high-temperature alkali metal salt environment, the tensile creep behavior of 12Cr1MoV alloy under different applied load and reaction temperature in high-temperature alkali metal chloride salt environment was studied. The results show that the deformation of 12Cr1MoV alloy in 600°C, NaCl-35%KCl mixed salt environment is mainly controlled by diffusion creep; with the increase of stress, the creep life of 12Cr1MoV alloy decreases. The creep fracture mechanism of 12Cr1MoV alloy in 600°C, NaCl-35%KCl mixed salt environment is intergranular ductile fracture; the increase of temperature will enhance the activation and oxidation of the chlorine atoms, thereby accelerating the corrosion of the base metal and increasing the spheroidization speed of the pearlite matrix, and the creep deformation rate of the alloy increases with increasing temperature.
An Ignored Wind Generates More Electricity: A Solar Updraft Tower to a Wind Solar Tower
A solar updraft tower is one of the wind power generation plants which utilizes solar energy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the tower was also able to utilize crosswind energy. Wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations were conducted simulating the crosswind. The results showed that suctioned updraft speed in the tower was proportional to the crosswind speed, and its conversion rate depended on the tower configuration. A diffuser-shaped tower with a vortex generator achieved to produce the updraft whose speed exceeded the crosswind speed. It was due to the low pressure created by the vortex atop the tower and to the diffuser effect. The crosswind utilization enables the simple power generation device to generate electricity during the night, and the hybrid utilization of renewable energies contributes to the increasing wind energy market.