Zn-Doped SnO2 Compact Layer for Enhancing Performance of Perovskite Solar CellsRead the full article
International Journal of Photoenergy publishes focused on all areas of photoenergy, including photochemistry and solar energy utilization.
Chief Editor, Giulia Grancini, is based at the University of Pavia, Italy. Her current research work aims at solving the stability and toxicity issues of developing multi-dimensional hybrid interfaces as lego-bricks for a new efficient, stable, and environmentally-friendly solar technology.
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Automated Generation Control of Multiple-Area Electrical System with an Availability-Based Tariff Pricing Scheme Regulated by Whale Optimized Fuzzy PID Controller
In this research, a whale-optimized fuzzy PID controller was developed to manage automatic generation control in multiple-area electrical energy systems with an availability-based tariff (ABT) pricing scheme. The objective of this work is to minimize the power production costs, area control errors (ACEs), and marginal costs of the multiple-area electrical energy system with real-time load and frequency variation conditions. The generation of power, deviation of power in the tie line, and deviation of frequency of the interconnected three-area electrical energy system, including the hydrothermal steam power plant and gas power plant, will be measured and analyzed rigorously. Based on the output from the whale optimization, the fuzzy PID controller regulates the deviation of power in the tie line and the deviation of frequency of the interconnected three-area electrical energy system. The reliability and suitability of the proposed optimization, i.e., whale-optimized fuzzy PID controller, are investigated against already presented methods such as particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithms.
Concentrated Solar Power and Photovoltaic Systems: A New Approach to Boost Sustainable Energy for All (Se4all) in Rwanda
The energy sector of today’s Rwanda has made a remarkable growth to some extent in recent years. Although Rwanda has natural energy resources (e.g., hydro, solar, and methane gas, etc.), the country currently has an installed electricity generation capacity of only 226.7 MW from its 45 power plants for a population of about 13 million in 2021. The current national rate of electrification in Rwanda is estimated to 54.5% (i.e.; 39.7% grid-connected and 14.8% off-grid connected systems). This clearly demonstrates that having access to electricity is still a challenge to numerous people not to mention some blackout-related problems. With the ambition of having electricity for all, concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) systems are regarded as solutions to the lack of electricity. The production of CSP has still not been seriously considered in Rwanda, even though the technology has attracted significant global attention. Heavy usage of conventional power has led to the depletion of fossil fuels. At the same time, it has highlighted its unfriendly relationship with the environment because of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, which is a major cause of global warming. Solar power is another source of electricity that has the potential to generate electricity in Rwanda. Firstly, this paper summarizes the present status of CSP and PV systems in Rwanda. Secondly, we conducted a technoeconomic analysis for CSP and PV systems by considering their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The input data of the SWOT analysis were obtained from relevant shareholders from the government, power producers, minigrid, off-grid, and private companies in Rwanda. Lastly, the technical and economical feasibilities of CSP and PV microgrid systems in off-grid areas of Rwanda were conducted using the system advisor model (SAM). The simulation results indicate that the off-grid PV microgrid system for the rural community is the most cost-effective because of its low net present cost (NPC). According to the past literature, the outcomes of this paper through the SWOT analyses and the results obtained from the SAM model, both the CSP and PV systems could undoubtedly play a vital role in Rwanda’s rural electrification. In fact, PV systems are strongly recommended in Rwanda because they are rapid and cost-effective ways to provide utility-scale electricity for off-grid modern energy services to the millions of people who lack electricity access.
Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Renewable Energy Integration Design: For an Institutional Energy System Network
The hybridization of a renewable energy generator with an existing system in a specific building plays a vital role in solving many important problems of electrical energy systems such as reliability, cost-effective, and ecological option. In this perspective, a modified energy system is proposed in an existing building with integrated renewable energy using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). To achieve the sustainable energy solution, the hybrid power source configurations available in the locations are analyzed to ensure reliability using the HOMER software tool. Among these, the best configuration is identified by using the Best Worst Method (BWM) based MCDA approach. The study examined the technical, economic, and environmental perspectives for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy. The results of the survey in the building show that the best optimal hybrid configuration of the proposed location is the Gird-PV-Wind-based systems for the specific location based on the key techno-economic-environmental criteria of the SDGs.
High Performance of IZO Coated on PET Substrate for Electroluminescence Device Using Oxygen Plasma Treatment
Thin films of indium zinc oxide (IZO) were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with varying plasma power (from 100 W to 300 W) using the radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique and electroluminescence (EL) devices. The IZO films that were obtained from this process were treated with oxygen plasma powers using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. After this treatment, the microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of IZO films were observed and reported. The result showed that the IZO/PET films was fabricated at the lowest resistivity (), while the optical characterization displayed the maximum transmittance of 95% in the visible region with a smooth morphology and good crystalline structured, affected by the 300 W of plasma power with the optimum carrier concentration () and hall mobility (42.12 cm2/V·sec), respectively. The luminance properties and the EL efficiency were also investigated and shown a 300 W highest point of plasma power with 84 cd/m2 and 0.924 lm/W. The film properties were found responsible for producing and improving the performance of IZO/PET substrate, suitable for displaying the devices.
An Improved Maximum Power Point Approach for Temperature Variation in PV System Applications
This paper develops and discusses an improved MPPT approach for temperature variation with fast-tracking speed and reduced steady-state oscillation. This MPPT approach can be added to numerous existing MPPT algorithms in order to enhance their tracking accuracy and response time and to reduce the power loss. The improved MPPT method is fast and accurate to follow the maximum power point under critical temperature conditions without increasing the implementation complexity. The simulation results under different scenarios of temperature and insolation were presented to validate the advantages of the proposed method in terms of tracking efficiency and reduction of power loss at dynamic and steady-state conditions. The simulation results obtained when the proposed MPPT technique was added to different MPPT techniques, namely, perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (INC), and modified MPP-Locus method, show significant enhancements of the MPP tracking performances, where the average efficiency of the conventional P&O, INC, and modified MPP-Locus MPPT methods under all scenarios is presented, respectively, as 98.85%, 98.80%, and 98.81%, whereas the average efficiency of the improved P&O, INC, and modified MPP-Locus MPPT methods is 99.18%, 99.06%, and 99.12%, respectively. Furthermore, the convergence time enhancement of the improved approaches over the conventional P&O, INC, and modified MPP-Locus methods is 2.06, 5.25, and 2.57 milliseconds, respectively; besides, the steady-state power oscillations of the conventional P&O, INC, and modified MPP-Locus MPPT methods are 2, 1, and 0.6 watts, but it is neglected in the case of using the improved approaches. In this study, the MATLAB/Simulink software package was selected for the implementation of the whole PV system.
Comprehensive Investigation of Solar-Based Hydrogen and Electricity Production in Iran
Hydrogen is a clean and environmentally friendly energy vector that can play an important role in meeting the world’s future energy needs. Therefore, a comprehensive study of the potential for hydrogen production from solar energy could greatly facilitate the transition to a hydrogen economy. Because by knowing the exact amount of potential for solar hydrogen production, the cost-effectiveness of its production can be compared with other methods of hydrogen production. Considering the above, it can be seen that so far no comprehensive study has been done on finding the exact potential of solar hydrogen production in different stations of Iran and finding the most suitable station. Therefore, in the present work, for the first time, using the HOMER and ArcGIS softwares, the technical-economic study of solar hydrogen production at home-scale was done. The results showed that Jask station with a levelized cost of energy equal to $ 0.172 and annual production of 83.8 kg of hydrogen is the best station and Darab station with a levelized cost of energy equal to $ 0.286 and annual production of 50.4 kg of hydrogen is the worst station. According to the results, other suitable stations were Bushehr and Deyr, and other unsuitable stations were Anzali and Khalkhal. Also, in 102 under study stations, 380 MW of solar electricity equivalent to 70.2 tons of hydrogen was produced annually. Based on the geographic information system map, it is clear that the southern half of Iran, especially the coasts of the Persian Gulf and the sea of Oman, is suitable for hydrogen production, and the northern, northeastern, northwestern, and one region in southern of Iran are unsuitable for hydrogen production. The authors of this article hope that the results of the present work will help the energy policymakers to create strategic frameworks and a roadmap for the production of solar hydrogen in Iran.