Recovery of Pure Silicon and Other Materials from Disposed Solar CellsRead the full article
International Journal of Photoenergy publishes focused on all areas of photoenergy, including photochemistry and solar energy utilization.
Chief Editor, Giulia Grancini, is based at the University of Pavia, Italy. Her current research work aims at solving the stability and toxicity issues of developing multi-dimensional hybrid interfaces as lego-bricks for a new efficient, stable, and environmentally-friendly solar technology.
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A Comprehensive Review on the Effects of Laser Photobiomodulation on Skeletal Muscle Fatigue in Spastic Patients
Peripheral muscle fatigue is a common experience in daily life. Every individual at some point in their life has realized the inability to maintain muscle contraction, a phenomenon known as fatigue. Interestingly, neurological patients with peripheral sequelae such as spastic muscle contraction are able to remain in a pattern of muscle contraction for prolonged periods. The effects of laser therapy are already recognized in muscle contraction to delay skeletal muscle fatigue, prolong physical activity, and reduce delayed onset muscle soreness. However, the effects of photobiomodulation on neurological patients with muscular spasticity are still not well established. The present literature review seeks to recognize articles about the application of laser irradiation, also known as photobiomodulation, to patients with muscle fatigue and/or spastic palsy. To perform a literature review, we used the systematic review methodology for the literature search. The following keywords were searched: (skeletal muscle fatigue) AND (spastic patients) AND (low-level laser therapy OR low intensity laser therapy OR low energy laser therapy OR LLLT OR LILT OR LELT OR infrared laser OR IR laser OR diode laser), and these were used for search on the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, BIREME, Scopus, and SciELO. Besides that, a literature review concerning on muscle physiology, fatigue, and LLLT was made. No language filter was applied, and altogether, 689 papers were identified. A group of 3 physiotherapists and 01 pharmaceutical scientist performed the literature review, and every exclusion was confirmed by at least two reviewers. After inclusion and exclusion criteria, 128 studies were included in this review. Conclusion, the LLLT can contribute to the recovery of spastic patients and muscles in fatigue. However, the real effect of laser photobiomodulation on muscle spasticity remains to be established. Only a much reduced number of clinical trials have been performed with a small number of participants. There is a lack of clinical trials from different research groups that could help to understand and elucidate the effects of laser in prolonged muscle contraction in spastic palsy.
Investigating the Effect of Inclination Angle of Magnetic Field Vector on Silicon PV Modules
In earlier studies, we have shown theoretically and experimentally that magnetic fields (MFs) have negative impact on silicon PV module (photovoltaic module). A noticeable decline in photocurrent with a slight increase in photovoltage was observed. Also, how those fields affected other key module’s parameters was also studied. These studies concluded that an increase in the magnitude of the MF resulted in the decrease of the efficiency of the silicon PV module. The previous experimental studies assumed that the MF vector formed zero angle of inclination with respect to the photosensitive face of the module. They did not factor in any effect that could be observed when the field vector is inclined. The present experimental work is an attempt to fill that gap. The characteristic curves of the PV module were plotted in the same system of axis for different values of the inclination angle of the MF vector. Correspondingly, the characteristic values (, , , , and ) of the PV module were also determined. These parameters then allowed the calculation of the efficiency of the module, its fill factor, and the equivalent circuit series and shunt resistances. It is observed that the module efficiency increases with the inclination of the MF vector, indicating that the effect of the MF on the PV module is reduced when its vector aligns towards a direction that is perpendicular to the base of the module. For example, when moves from 0 to 90°, the power output and consequently the efficiency of the PV module relatively increase of 14%.
Effect of Reflecting Material on CPC to Improve the Performance of Hybrid Groundwater Solar Desalination System
Water-energy nexus is a crucial and challenging concern that addressing it is noteworthy for the future of human beings. In addition, freshwater production is a highly energy-intensive procedure. Therefore, developing a suitable solution for this problem is of importance. In the present scenario, solar energy is one of the suitable options for desalination because solar energy is available at a low cost, is clean for the environment, and is widely available. Generally, solar collectors such as flat plate collectors (FPC) and evacuated tube collectors were experimented for desalination applications. This work presents an experimental investigation of a single-stage hybrid (ETC-CPC) groundwater solar desalination system. A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is placed below the evacuated tube collector (ETC) for collecting solar radiations to transfer heat to evacuated tubes which improves performance in the case of different weather conditions of Pune city in India. Experimental results show that the hybrid solar groundwater desalination system, by maintaining the optimum distance of 20 mm between ETC and CPC with Mylar as the reflecting material, could offer a drinking water production rate of up to 3.4 l/(m2h)/day. However, the proposed single-stage hybrid (ETC+CPC) groundwater solar desalination system with aluminum foil as a reflecting material could generate 1.9 liters of soft water per day. Further, the use of Mylar as a reflecting material could generate 3.5 liters of soft water per day.
Technoeconomic Performance Analysis of Solar Tracking Methods for Roof-Type Solar Power Plants and Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
In building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar energy projects, cost effectiveness, durability, and long-term reliability are among the criteria that should be taken into consideration as well as the gain in electricity generation efficiency. Also, in a study, it is stated that a dual-axis solar tracking system occupies approximately 100% more space than a single-axis system and 160% more than a fixed-angle system. It has been observed that most of the studies that are mounted on the building and include a tracking system are small-scale experimental studies. The aim of this article is to present a systematic analysis with a low investment cost, a low operating cost, and high reliability, in a real application especially for roof applications in buildings. Three buildings in the same location and with the same roof area were selected. Photovoltaic power plants with 23.68 kW power were installed; these panels had three types: fixed-angle, manually controlled, and single-axis solar tracking systems. The energy generation system is connected to the network with a double-sided meter, and there is a double-sided energy flow. The energy produced is used to meet the energy needs of the vehicle charging station and common areas of the buildings. Although the single-axis tracking system is 27.85% more efficient than other energy generation methods, the manually adjusted method has proven to have the shortest amortization time. The study also presents shading, which is a serious problem in large-scale roof projects, and the area covered by the module per unit watt produced.
Impact of Dimensionality on Optoelectronic Properties of Hybrid Perovskites
Organometal halides are promising materials for photovoltaic applications, offering tunable electronic levels, excellent charge transport, and simplicity of thin-film device fabrication. Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have emerged as promising candidates over three-dimensional (3D) ones due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. However, maximizing the power conversion efficiency is a critical issue to improve the performance of these solar cells. In this work, we studied the photophysics of a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2 thin film using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy and compared it with the three-dimensional (3D) counterpart CH3NH3PbI3. We observed a higher bandgap and faster charge recombination in (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2 compared to CH3NH3PbI3. This work provides an improved understanding of fundamental photophysical processes in perovskite structures and provides the guideline for the design, synthesis, and fabrication of solar cells.
A Novel Design of Photovoltaic-Based Charging Station for Battery Vehicles with Dynamic Demand: A Case of Short Runs
In this research, a novel design and operation of solar-based charging system for battery vehicle for a 50 km run is proposed. The proposal is aimed at replacing 110 existing diesel vehicles with 39 electric buses. Several operation scenarios for the charging stations are proposed and analyzed. Scenarios include two different battery charging methodologies and one hybrid option between electric buses and diesel vehicles. An energy model of the adapted electric buses is developed first. After that, load demand and needs including number of daily trips, number of passengers per hour, and hourly energy consumption are determined based on the developed model and gathered information. Results show that a 5.7 MWp photovoltaic system is required to power this transportation line with a loss of load probability of 5% and a trip cost per passenger of 2.05 USD. The simple payback period of the system is found to be 10 years, which is 40% of the system’s lifetime. The amount of CO2 mitigated by the proposed system is estimated as 1,629,387 (kg/year). The social impact of the proposed project is found acceptable; whereas, most of the current employees will keep their jobs with higher salaries by about 145% and less working hours by 50%. Moreover, it is expected that the proposed project will significantly increase the reliability, convenience, and sustainability of the transportation process.