Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2010, Article ID 136807, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/136807
Research Article

Bridged Phthalocyanine Systems for Sensitization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films

1Center for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy (CHOSE), University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Giacomo Peroni 400/402, 00131 Rome, Italy
2CNR-Istituto Struttura della Materia, Via Salaria Km. 29.5, Monterotondo Stazione, 00016 Rome, Italy
3CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Salita Sperone Contrada Papardo, Faro Superiore, 98158 Messina, Italy

Received 1 June 2010; Accepted 28 June 2010

Academic Editor: Leonardo Palmisano

Copyright © 2010 Gloria Zanotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. S. Lewis, “Powering the planet,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 808–820, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Grätzel, “Photoelectrochemical cells,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 338–344, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Grätzel, “Dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145–153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Kay, I. Rodicio et al., “Conversion of light to electricity by cis-X 2Bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II). Charge-transfer sensitizers (X = Cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, and SCN-) on nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 115, no. 14, pp. 6382–6390, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Tachibana, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, D. R. Klug, and J. R. Durrant, “Subpicosecond interfacial charge separation in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 51, pp. 20056–20062, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. W. Hamann, R. A. Jensen, A. B. F. Martinson, H. V. Ryswyk, and J. T. Hupp, “Advancing beyond current generation dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 66–78, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Mishra, M. K. R. Fischer, and P. Bäuerle, “Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 48, no. 14, pp. 2474–2499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Tian and F. Meng, “Solar cells based on nanoporous titania films filled with conjugated polymers,” in Organic Photovoltaics : Mechanisms, Materials, and Devices, S. S. Sun and N. S. Sariciftci, Eds., p. 313, CRC, London, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  9. H. Tian, X. Yang, R. Chen, A. Hagfeldt, and L. Sun, “A metal-free “black dye” for panchromatic dye-sensitized solar cells,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 674–677, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. P. Hagberg, J.-H. Yum, H. Lee et al., “Molecular engineering of organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 19, pp. 6259–6266, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker et al., “High-efficiency organic-dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode thickness,” Advanced Materials, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1202–1205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Hara, K. Sayama, Y. Ohga, A. Shinpo, S. Suga, and H. Arakawa, “A coumarin-derivative dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell having a high solar-energy conversion efficiency up to 5.6%,” Chemical Communications, no. 6, pp. 569–570, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Hara, M. Kurashige, Y. Dan-oh et al., “Design of new coumarin dyes having thiophene moieties for highly efficient organic-dye-sensitized solar cells,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 783–785, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Calogero, G. Di Marco, S. Cazzanti et al., “Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using red turnip and purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruits,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 254–267, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. G. Claessens, U. Hahn, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines: from outstanding electronic properties to emerging applications,” The Chemical Record, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 75–97, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Leznoff and A. B. P. Lever, Eds., Phthalocyanines: Properties and Applications, vol. 1–4, Wiley-VCH, Cambridge, UK, 1989.
  17. G. De La Torre, C. G. Claessens, and T. Torres, “Phthalocyanines: old dyes, new materials. Putting color in nanotechnology,” Chemical Communications, no. 20, pp. 2000–2015, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Imahori, T. Umeyama, and S. Ito, “Large π-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for higly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1809–1818, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Ooyama and Y. Harima, “Molecular designs and syntheses of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, no. 18, pp. 2903–2934, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. E. Hardin, E. T. Hoke, P. B. Armstrong et al., “Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes,” Nature Photonics, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 406–411, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Lee, S. W. Park, M. J. Ko, K. Kim, and N.-G. Park, “Selective positioning of organic dyes in a mesoporous inorganic oxide film,” Nature Materials, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 665–671, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. He, G. Benko, F. Korodi et al., “Modified phthalocyanines for efficient near-IR sensitization of nanostructured TiO2 electrode,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 17, pp. 4922–4932, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. D. K. Nazeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker, M. Grätzel, and B. A. Murrer, “Efficient near IR sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 films by ruthenium phthalocyanines,” Chemical Communications, no. 6, pp. 719–720, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Palomares, M. V. Martínez-Diaz, S. A. Haque, T. Torres, and J. R. Durrant, “State selective electron injection in non-aggregated titanium phthalocyanine sensitised nanocrystalline TiO2 films,” Chemical Communications, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 2112–2113, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Morandeira, I. Lopez-Duarte, M. V. Martinez-Diaz et al., “Slow electron injection on Ru-phthalocyanine sensitized TiO2,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 30, pp. 9250–9251, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. He, A. Hagfeldt, S.-E. Lindquist et al., “Phthalocyanine-sensitized nanostructured TiO2 electrodes prepared by a novel anchoring method,” Langmuir, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2743–2747, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Eu, T. Katoh, T. Umeyama, Y. Matano, and H. Imahori, “Synthesis of sterically hindered phthalocyanines and their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells,” Dalton Transactions, no. 40, pp. 5476–5483, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-H. Yum, S.-R. Jang, R. Humphry-Baker et al., “Effect of coadsorbent on the photovoltaic performance of zinc pthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells,” Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 5636–5640, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Morandeira, I. López-Duarte, B. O'Regan et al., “Ru(II)-phthalocyanine sensitized solar cells: the influence of co-adsorbents upon interfacial electron transfer kinetics,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 28, pp. 5016–5026, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Y. Reddy, L. Giribabu, C. Lyness et al., “Efficient sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 films by a near-IR-absorbing unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 373–376, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J.-J. Cid, J.-H. Yum, S.-R. Jang et al., “Molecular cosensitization for efficient panchromatic dye-sensitized solar cells,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 46, no. 44, pp. 8358–8362, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Silvestri, I. Lopez-Duarte, W. Seitz et al., “A squaraine-phthalocyanine ensemble: towards molecular panchromatic sensitizers in solar cells,” Chemical Communications, no. 30, pp. 4500–4502, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Rawling, C. Austin, F. Buchholz, S. B. Colbran, and A. M. McDonagh, “Ruthenium phthalocyanine-bipyridyl dyads as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: dye coverage versus molecular efficiency,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 3215–3227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Giribabu, C. V. Kumar, P. Y. Reddy, J.-H. Yum, M. Grätzel, and M. K. Nazeeruddin, “Unsymmetrical extended π-conjugated zinc phthalocyanine for sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 films,” Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 75–82, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. C. O'Regan, I. López-Duarte, M. V. Martínez-Díaz et al., “Catalysis of recombination and its limitation on open circuit voltage for dye sensitized photovoltaic cells using phthalocyanine dyes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 10, pp. 2906–2907, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J.-J. Cid, M. García-Iglesias, J.-H. Yum et al., “Structure-function relationships in unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanines for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chemistry - A European Journal, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 5130–5137, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Silvestri, M. García-Iglesias, J. Yumb et al., “Carboxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene- and carboxy-2,6-naphthylene-vinylene unsymmetrical substituted zinc phthalocyanines for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 369–375, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Metz, O. Schneider, and M. Hanack, “Synthesis and properties of substituted (phthalocyaninato)iron and -cobalt compounds and their pyridine adducts,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1065–1071, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Rossi, V. L. Goedken, and C. Ercolani, “μ-carbido-bridged iron phthalocyanine dimers: synthesis and characterization,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 1, pp. 46–47, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D.V. O'Connor and D. Phillips, Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
  41. N. Angelini, N. Micali, V. Villari, P. Mineo, D. Vitalini, and E. Scamporrino, “Interactions between water soluble porphyrin-based star polymer and amino acids: spectroscopic evidence of molecular binding,” Physical Review E, vol. 71, no. 2, Article ID 021915, 7 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D.W. Marquadt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 431–441, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  44. A. Kienast, L. Galich, K. S. Murray et al., “μ-carbido diporphyrinates and diphthalocyaninates of iron and ruthenium,” Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 141–157, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Lancon and K. M. Kadish, “Electrochemistry of the μ-carbido iron tetraphenylporphyrin dimer, ((TPP)Fe)2C, in nonaqueous media. Evidence for axial ligation by pyridine,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 3942–3947, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Choi, I. Raabe, D. Kim et al., “High molar extinction coefficient organic sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chemistry - A European Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1193–1201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci et al., “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 48, pp. 16835–16847, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus