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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 273683, 11 pages
Research Article

TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2)-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

1Centre for Ionics University Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Universiti, 46350 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Physics, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
4Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 8 July 2011; Revised 26 August 2011; Accepted 2 September 2011

Academic Editor: Gaetano Di Marco

Copyright © 2011 M. H. Buraidah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I) salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2)-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed of 172 μA cm−2 and of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70)-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited of 1213 μA cm−2, of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO)-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, of 3503 μA cm−2, of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.