Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 139278, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/139278
Research Article

Near-Infrared All-Silicon Photodetectors

Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, National Council of Research, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy

Received 31 May 2011; Accepted 27 September 2011

Academic Editor: Fabio Iacona

Copyright © 2012 M. Casalino et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4600–4615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1678–1687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Pavesi and D. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, vol. 94 of Topics in Applied Physics, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
  4. L. C. Kimerling, L. dal Negro, S. Saini et al., “Monolithic silicon microphotonics,” in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Eds., vol. 94 of Topics in Applied Physics, pp. 89–119, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  5. L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, “CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon,” Electronics Letters, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 392–393, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois et al., “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 3810–3815, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 430–436, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. P. Michael, M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, C. Chrystal, and O. Painter, “An optical fiber-taper probe for wafer-scale microphotonic device characterization,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4745–4752, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin et al., “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 660–668, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, “Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1440–1455, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, “2.5 Gbit/s polycrystalline germanium-on-silicon photodetector operating from 1.3 to 1.55 μm,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 15, pp. 2524–2526, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 1813–1815, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Near-infrared sub-bandgap all-silicon photodetectors: state of the art and perspectives,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 10571–10600, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 μm wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 1323–1325, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. D. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 24, Article ID 241103, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 μm wavelengths linear absorption in a p-i-n diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, Article ID 171111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Zhu, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Near-infrared waveguide-based nickel silicide Schottky-barrier photodetector for optical communications,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 8, Article ID 081103, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, no. 2, Article ID 021104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Wang, X. Su, Y. Zhu et al., “Photocurrent in Ag-Si photodiodes modulated by plasmonic nanopatterns,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, no. 24, Article ID 241106, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. R. H. Fowler, “The analysis of photoelectric sensitivity curves for clean metals at various temperatures,” Physical Review, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 1931. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. V. E. Vickers, “Hydrostatic equilibrium and gravitational collapse of relativistic charged fluid balls,” Applied Optics, vol. 10, pp. 2190–2192, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Y. Chan and H. C. Card, “Near IR interband transitions and optical parameters of metal-germanium contacts,” Applied Optics, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1309–1315, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 46, no. 5, Article ID 5485040, pp. 633–643, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. C. Card, “Aluminum-silicon schottky barriers and ohmic contacts in integrated circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. ED-23, no. 6, pp. 538–544, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Donati, Photodetectors: Devices, Circuits, and Applications, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1999.
  26. M. S. Ünlü and S. Strite, “Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 607–639, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1985.
  28. M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffré, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 25, Article ID 251104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. P. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1851–1853, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. BeamPROP of RSoftDesignGroup, http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products.php?sub=Component+Design&itm=BeamPROP&det=Product+Overview.
  31. M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, and I. Rendina, “A silicon compatible resonant cavity enhanced photodetector working at 1.55 νm,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 23, no. 7, Article ID 075001, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1981.