Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 149210, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/149210
Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films by Selenization of Cu0.8Ga0.2 and In2Se3 Precursor Films

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Received 1 August 2012; Accepted 31 October 2012

Academic Editor: Roel van De Krol

Copyright © 2012 Jiang Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, K. Ramanathan et al., “Progress toward 20% efficiency in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 polycrystalline thin-film solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 311–316, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, and E. Lotter, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 894–897, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Jager-Waldau, “Progress in chalcopyrite compound semiconductor research for photovoltaic applications and transfer of results into actual solar cell production,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1509–1517, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Kaelin, D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari, “Low cost processing of CIGS thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 749–756, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins et al., “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 453–466, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Rao, S. Krishnan, G. Sanjeev, K. Siddappa, H. S. Ullal, and X. Z. Wu, “8 MeV electron irradiation studies on electrical characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1618–1623, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 84–92, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. O. Lundberg, J. Lu, A. Rockett, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 64, no. 9-10, pp. 1499–1504, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. L. Jensen, D. E. Tarrant, J. H. Ermer, and G. A. Pollock, “Role of gallium in CuInSe2 solar cells fabricated by a two-stage method,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 577–580, Louisville, Ky, USA, May 1993. View at Scopus
  10. U. Rau and H. W. Schock, “Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” in Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation, T. Markvart and L. Castaner, Eds., pp. 303–349, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. R. Tuttle, M. Contreras, A. Tennant, D. Albin, and R. Noufi, “High efficiency thin-film Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based photovoltaic devices: progress towards a universal approach to absorber fabrication,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 415–421, Louisville, Ky, USA, May 1993. View at Scopus
  12. M. Venkatachalam, M. D. Kannan, S. Jayakumar, R. Balasundaraprabhu, and N. Muthukumarasamy, “Effect of annealing on the structural properties of electron beam deposited CIGS thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 20, pp. 6848–6852, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Jackson, R. Würz, U. Rau et al., “High quality baseline for high efficiency, Cu(In1x,Gax)Se2 solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 507–519, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Ramanathan, G. Teeter, J. C. Keane, and R. Noufi, “Properties of high-efficiency CuInGaSe2 thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 480-481, pp. 499–502, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. A. Contreras, K. Ramanathan, J. AbuShama et al., “Diode characteristics in state-of-the-art ZnO/CdS/ Cu(In1xGax)Se2 solar cells,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 209–216, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. F. Gremenok, E. P. Zaretskaya, V. B. Zalesski et al., “Preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells by two-stage selenization processes using N2 gas,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 129–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. H. Shi, Z. Q. Li, D. W. Zhang, Q. Q. Liu, Z. Z. Sun, and S. M. Huang, “Fabrication of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films by sputtering from a single quaternary chalcogenide target,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Alberts, S. Zweigart, and H. W. Schock, “Preparation of device quality CuInSe2 by selenization of Se-containing precursors in H2Se atmosphere,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 217–223, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Witte, R. Kniese, and M. Powalla, “Raman investigations of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films with various copper contents,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 2, pp. 867–869, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Barreau, J. Lähnemann, F. Couzinié-Devy, L. Assmann, P. Bertoncini, and J. Kessler, “Impact of Cu-rich growth on the CuIn1xGaxSe2 surface morphology and related solar cells behaviour,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 2013–2019, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Li, Y. Sun, Y. Wang, H. Cai, F. Liu, and Q. He, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of facing-target sputtered Al-doped ZnO films,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 659–663, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. A. Kadam and N. G. Dhere, “Highly efficient CuIn1xGaxSe2ySy/CdS thin-film solar cells by using diethylselenide as selenium precursor,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 738–743, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Caballero and C. Guillén, “Comparative studies between Cu-Ga-Se and Cu-In-Se thin film systems,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 403-404, pp. 107–111, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. Witte, R. Kniese, A. Eicke, and M. Powalla, “Influence of the GA content on the Mo/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface formation,” in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, vol. 1, pp. 553–556, May 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Delsol, A. P. Samantilleke, N. B. Chaure, P. H. Gardiner, M. Simmonds, and I. M. Dharmadasa, “Experimental study of graded bandgap Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 thin films grown on glass/molybdenum substrates by selenization and sulphidation,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 587–599, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. P. Zaretskaya, V. F. Gremenok, V. Riede et al., “Raman spectroscopy of CuInSe2 thin films prepared by selenization,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 64, no. 9-10, pp. 1989–1993, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. J. Stanbery, “Copper indium selenides and related materials for photovoltaic devices,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 73–117, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Klenk, T. Walter, H. W. Schock, and D. Cahen, “A model for the successful growth of polycrystalline films of CuInSe2 by multisource physical vacuum evaporation,” Advanced Materials, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 114–119, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Goushi, H. Hakuma, K. Tabuchi, S. Kijima, and K. Kushiya, “Fabrication of pentanary Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 absorbers by selenization and sulfurization,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 1318–1320, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Noufi, R. Axton, C. Herrington, and S. K. Deb, “Electronic properties versus composition of thin films of CuInSe2,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 668–670, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus