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International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 268173, 14 pages
Research Article

Effective Sol-Gel Nanocoatings on ZnO Electrodes for Suppressing Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan

Received 3 February 2012; Accepted 16 April 2012

Academic Editor: David Worrall

Copyright © 2012 Shintaro Ueno and Shinobu Fujihara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Attempts have been made to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by forming metal-oxide nanocoating layers on ZnO electrodes by a sol-gel transformation. SiO2, Nb2O5, TiO2, or ZrO2 nanocoating layers could be formed by dipping ZnO films into metal alkoxide solutions of low concentrations and subsequent heat treatments. The performance of DSSCs using the coated ZnO electrodes depends strongly on the structure of coating layers such as the thickness and the surface coverage, which are significantly influenced by the coating conditions. In particular, SiO2 and Nb2O5 coating layers are effective to suppress the recombination by constructing the energy barrier at the ZnO/electrolyte interface and enhance energy conversion efficiency. It is found that the coating layers also hinder the grain growth of ZnO, contributing to the enhanced cell performance as well.