Energy Conversion in Protocells with Natural Nanoconductors
Ragone chart comparing the natural electrocyte, AC protocells, and DC protocells with conventional batteries, capacitors, and other energy conversion devices, including piezoelectric, thermoelectric, and photovoltaic devices (data for these other devices from [28, 85, 86, 88–90]). The AC protocell performance is described by a parallelogram; the bottom edge indicates the performance of AC protocells from initial design parameters (i.e., the natural electrocyte, marked with “○”) to the optimal design parameters (marked with “+”) at 1 h continuous output; the top edge indicates the performance of AC protocells at 10 h continuous output; the left and right sides reflect the performance of AC protocells spanning from 1 h to 10 h.
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