Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 626759, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/626759
Research Article

Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes under Visible Light on N-Doped Photocatalysts

1Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy

Received 4 August 2012; Revised 5 September 2012; Accepted 12 September 2012

Academic Editor: Jiaguo Yu

Copyright © 2012 Olga Sacco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma, V. Vaiano, and R. S. Mazzei, “Intensification of gas-phase photoxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by using phosphors as light carriers,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 414–418, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma, V. Vaiano, and R. S. Mazzei, “A step forwards in ethanol selective photo-oxidation,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 699–704, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma, and V. Vaiano, “Photocatalysed selective oxidation of cyclohexane to benzene on MoOx/TiO2,” Catalysis Today, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 143–149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma, and V. Vaiano, “Cyclohexane photocatalytic oxidative dehydrogenation to benzene on sulphated titania supported MoOx,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 155, pp. 179–187, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma, V. Vaiano, and R. I. Bickley, “Reaction mechanism of cyclohexane selective photo-oxidation to benzene on molybdena/titania catalysts,” Applied Catalysis, vol. 349, no. 1-2, pp. 140–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Ciambelli, V. Palma, D. Sannino, S. Vaccaro, and V. Vaiano, “Selective oxidation of cyclohexane to benzene on molybdena-titania catalysts in fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 172, p. 453, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  7. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma et al., “Tuning the selectivity of MoOx supported catalysts for cyclohexane photo oxidehydrogenation,” Catalysis Today, vol. 128, no. 3-4, pp. 251–257, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Ciambelli, D. Sannino, V. Palma et al., “Photocatalytic cyclohexane oxidehydrogenation on sulphated MoOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts,” Catalysis Today, vol. 141, no. 3-4, pp. 367–373, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. J. Murcia, M. C. Hidalgo, J. A. Navío, V. Vaiano, P. Ciambelli, and D. Sannino, “Photocatalytic ethanol oxidative dehydrogenation over Pt/TiO2: effect of the addition of blue phosphors,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 687262, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, P. Ciambelli, and L. A. Isupova, “Structured catalysts for photo-fenton oxidation of acetic acid,” Catalysis Today, vol. 161, pp. 255–259, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, L. A. Isupova, and P. Ciambelli, “Heterogeneous photo-fenton oxidation of organic pollutants on structured catalysts,” Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 294–300, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, L. A. Isupova, and P. Ciambelli, “Photo-fenton oxidation of acetic acid on supported LaFeO3 and Pt/LaFeO3 perovskites,” Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 25, pp. 1013–1018, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, P. Ciambelli, M. C. Hidalgo, J. J. Murcia, and J. A. Navío, “Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol over Au/TiO2 photocatalysts,” Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 284–293, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. J. Murcia, M. C. Hidalgo, J. A. Navío, V. Vaiano, P. Ciambelli, and P. D. Sannino, “Ethanol partial photoxidation on Pt/TiO2 catalysts as green route for acetaldehyde synthesis,” Catalysis Today, In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, and P. Ciambelli, “Innovative structured VOx/TiO2 photocatalysts supported on phosphors for the selective photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde,” Catalysis Today, In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, P. Ciambelli, P. Eloy, and E. M. Gaigneaux, “Avoiding the deactivation of sulphated MoOx/TiO2 catalysts in the photocatalytic cyclohexane oxidative dehydrogenation by a fluidized bed photoreactor,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 394, pp. 71–78, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. V. Palma, D. Sannino, V. Vaiano, and P. Ciambelli, “Fluidized-bed reactor for the intensification of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 21, pp. 10279–10286, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Anpo, “Preparation, characterization, and reactivities of highly functional titanium oxide-based photocatalysts able to operate under UV-visible light irradiation: approaches in realizing high efficiency in the use of visible light,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 1427–1442, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Cappelletti, S. Ardizzone, C. L. Bianchi et al., “Photodegradation of pollutants in air: enhanced properties of nano-TiO2 prepared by ultrasound,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–105, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Grätzel, “Photoelectrochemical cells,” Nature, vol. 414, p. 338, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  21. X. Chen and S. S. Mao, “Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, modifications and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 2891–2959, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. R. Hoffmann, S. T. Martin, W. Choi, and D. Bahnemann, “Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, pp. 69–96, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Peral, X. Domenech, and D. F. Ollis, “Heterogeneous photocatalysis for purification, decontamination and deodorization of air,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 117–140, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  24. J. Zhao and X. Yang, “Photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air purification: a literature review,” Building and Environment, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 645–654, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  25. X. Z. Fu, W. A. Zeltner, and M. A. Andreson, “The gas-phase photocatalytic mineralization of benzene on porous titania-based catalysts,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 209–290, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Choi, Y. J. Kim, R. S. Varma, and D. D. Dionysiou, “Thermally stable nanocrystalline TiO2 photocatalysts synthesized via sol-gel methods modified with ionic liquid and surfactant molecules,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 5377–5384, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Li, X. Wang, M. Yan, and L. Li, “Preparation and characterization of nano-TiO2 powder,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 184–188, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Fujishima, T. N. Rao, and D. A. Tryk, “Titanium dioxide photocatalysis,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, “Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 735–758, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Tada, M. Yamamoto, and S. Ito, “Promoting effect of MgOx submonolayer coverage of TiO2 on the photoinduced oxidation of anionic surfactants,” Langmuir, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 3699–3702, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Shang, H. Fu, S. Yang, and T. Xu, “Mechanistic study of visible-light-induced photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by TiO2−xNx with low nitrogen concentration,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 759306, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Li, S. Lin, J. Liao, N. Pan, D. Li, and J. Li, “Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical property,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 794207, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Q. Xiang, J. Yu, W. Wang, and M. Jaroniec, “Nitrogen self-doped nanosized TiO2 sheets with exposed {001} facets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 24, pp. 6906–6908, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Li, H. Wang, C. Pan, J. Wei, R. Xiong, and J. Shi, “Enhanced photoactivity of Fe+N codoped anatase-rutile TiO2 vanowire film under visible light irradiation,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 398508, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. J. Hu, H. Tang, X. Lin et al., “Doped titanium dioxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 758539, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Qian, G. Cui, M. Jing, Y. Wang, M. Zhang, and J. Yang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide and evaluation of its visible light photocatalytic activity,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 198497, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. C.-C. Hu, T.-C. Hsu, and L.-H. Kao, “One-step cohydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen-doped titanium oxide nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 391958, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. V. Emeline, V. N. Kuznetsov, V. K. Rybchuk, and N. Serpone, “Visible-light-active titania Photocatalysts: the case of n-doped TiO2 s-properties and some fundamental issues,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2008, Article ID 258394, 19 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. A. Wang, R. Limas-Ballesteros, T. López et al., “Quantitative determination of titanium lattice defects and solid-state reaction mechanism in iron-doped TiO2 photocatalysts,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 105, no. 40, pp. 9692–9698, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. C. Yu, J. G. Yu, and J. C. Zhao, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of mesoporous and ordinary TiO2 thin films by sulfuric acid treatment,” Applied Catalysis, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  41. K. Kobayakawa, Y. Murakami, and Y. Sato, “Visible-light active N-doped TiO2 prepared by heating of titanium hydroxide and urea,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 177–179, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. J. Tayade, P. K. Suroliya, R. G. Kulkarni, and R. V. Jasra, “Photocatalytic degradation of dyes and organic contaminants in water using nanocrystalline anatase and rutile TiO2,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 455–462, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  43. R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, and Y. Taga, “Visible-light photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5528, pp. 269–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Irie, Y. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Nitrogen-concentration dependence on photocatalytic activity of TiO2−xNx powders,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 23, pp. 5483–5486, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  45. O. Sacco, M. Stoller, V. Vaiano, A. Chianese, and D. Sannino, “On the comparison of different light sources in the photocatalytic degradation of tannery wastewater stream,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Meeting on Solar Chemistry and Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications (SPEA '7), Oporto, Portugal, June 2012.
  46. S. De Gisi, M. Galasso, and G. De Feo, “Treatment of tannery wastewater through the combination of a conventional activated sludge process and reverse osmosis with a plane membrane,” Desalination, vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 337–342, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Sato, “Photo catalytic activity of NOx doped TiO2 in the visible region,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 123, no. 1-2, pp. 126–128, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  48. R. W. Matthews, “Photocatalytic oxidation and adsorption of methylene blue on thin films of near-ultraviolet-illuminated TiO2,” Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 697–707, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. Scherrer, “Bestimmung der Grösse und der inneren Struktur von Kolloidteilchen mittels Röntgenstrahlen,” Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, vol. 26, pp. 98–100, 1918. View at Google Scholar
  50. T. Ohsaka, F. Izumi, and Y. Fujiki,, “Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 321–324, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  51. S. P. S. Porto, P. A. Fleury, and T. C. Damen, “Raman spectra of TiO2, MgF2, ZnF2, FeF2, and MnF2,” Physical Review, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 522–526, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Djaoued, S. Badilescu, P. V. Ashrit, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and R. Brüning, “Low temperature sol-gel preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 247–254, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. C. Parker and R. W Siegel, “Raman microprobe study of nanophase TiO2 and oxidation-induced spectral changes,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1246–1252, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  54. G. J. Exarhous and N. J. Hess, “Spectroscopic measurements of stress relaxation during thermally induced crystallization of amorphous titania films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 220, no. 1-2, pp. 254–260, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  55. D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, and X. Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the Raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 73–75, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Ivanda, S. Music, M. Gotic, A. Turkovic, A.M. Tonejc, and O. Gamulin, “The effects of crystal size on the Raman spectra of nanophase TiO2,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 480-481, pp. 641–644, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. T. Mazza, E. Barborini, P. Piseri et al., “Raman spectroscopy characterization of TiO2 rutile nanocrystals,” Physical Review, vol. 75, no. 4, Article ID 045416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, and J. Robichaud, “Phonon confinement studies in nanocrystalline anatase-TiO2 thin films by micro Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1416–1422, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K.R. Zhu, M.S. Zhang, Q. Chen, and Z. Yin, “Size and phonon-confinement effects on low-frequency Raman mode of anatase TiO2 nanocrystal,” Physics Letters, vol. 340, no. 1–4, pp. 220–227, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  60. I. A. Alhomoudi and G. Newaz, “Residual stresses and Raman shift relation in anatase TiO2 thin film,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 15, pp. 4372–4378, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. R. Aita, “Raman scattering by thin film nanomosaic rutile TiO2,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 21, pp. 213112–213113, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  62. C. Yogi, K. Kojima, T. Takai, and N. Wada, “Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by Au-deposited TiO2 film under UV irradiation,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 821–827, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. A. Rauf, M. A. Meetani, A. Khaleel, and A. Ahmed, “Photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue using a mixed catalyst and product analysis by LC/MS,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 157, no. 2-3, pp. 373–378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus